Intensive intervention for students with mathematics disabilities: Seven principles of effective practice


The focus of this article is intervention for third-grade students with serious mathematics deficits at third grade. In third grade, such deficits are clearly established, and identification of mathematics disabilities typically begins. We provide background information on two aspects of mathematical cognition that present major challenges for students in the primary grades: number combinations and story problems. We then focus on seven principles of effective intervention. First, we describe a validated, intensive remedial intervention for number combinations and another for story problems. Then, we use these interventions to illustrate the first six principles for designing intensive tutoring protocols for students with mathematics disabilities. Next, using the same validated interventions, we report the percentage of students whose learning outcomes were inadequate despite the overall efficacy of the interventions and explain how ongoing progress monitoring represents a seventh, and perhaps the most essential, principle of intensive intervention. We conclude by identifying issues and directions for future research in the primary and later grades.




Copyright 2008 Learning Disability Quarterly. This is a post-print version of a published paper that is available at: Recommended citation: Fuchs, Lynn S., Douglas Fuchs, Sarah R. Powell, Pamela M. Seethaler, Paul T. Cirino, and Jack M. Fletcher. "Intensive Intervention for Students with Mathematics Disabilities: Seven Principles of Effective Practice." Learning Disability Quarterly 31, no. 2 (2008): 79-92. doi: 10.2307/20528819. This item has been deposited in accordance with publisher copyright and licensing terms and with the author's permission.