How do SARS-CoV-2 vaccines work in ending COVID-19 pandemic?



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The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has had an alarming effect on daily affairs. Covid-19 is an acute respiratory disease that can result in fatal outcomes. According to the CDC, there have been over 5 million recorded cases and over 170,000 fatalities in the U.S. alone. These numbers are still surging, and the rate is still growing. The disease originated from bats and is of the Betacoronavirus genus. It has about 79% sequence identity to SARS-CoV and has shown similar methods in transmittance & spread. It attaches to the ACE2 receptor in humans using its spike protein. There are 3 common approaches being taken in developing a vaccine. The first is a protein vaccine. Most of these vaccines are targeting the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 to inhibit it from attaching to host cells. The second is gene delivery. This method relies on researchers to create a genetic sequence that could invade the virus. It is then used to immunize subjects to the virus. When the virus attack later, the body will trigger an immune response. The final is an inactivated virus. Common to how the treatment of the flu is, this requires neutralizing the virus in its effects and injecting it into subjects. This teaches the immune system how to fight off the virus on its own. Each method has its own benefits and weaknesses. Having a diverse approach to a working vaccine can help strengthen the overall process in finding a cure that could save millions of lives.