The design and development of two models of CAI for instruction in administrative education



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Purpose This dissertation developed and tested techniques and models to aid the instructor of administrative education to prepare and use modules incorporating computer aided instruction. The dissertation should facilitate an instructor's identification of topics which might be enhanced by the use of one or both of two relatively popular modes of CAI -- 'drill and practice' and 'tutorial' -- and by individualized testing via the computer. Step-by-step guidelines are provided along with examples to aid in the transition from inception to end processes and products. An instructor with a working knowledge of the computer language BASIC and of the principles of instructional systems design should be able to prepare modules utilizing CAI by following the steps in the models. After modules are prepared, the models enable the instructor to playback, test, add material, delete material, etc., at any time. The modules are not bound to any particular computer system as long as the system has time sharing BASIC capability. Procedures The procedures followed in the development of this dissertation were intended to: a. Develop CAI models that would demonstratively facilitate the creation of CAI modules. b. Develop CAI models that educators would want to use. These models would be so functional and easy to learn that a demonstratively positive attitudinal change would occur in those educators shown how to use the models. To accomplish these ends, five models and examples of how they might be used in the instruction of administrative education were constructed. The five models deal respectively with: evaluating the appropriateness of instructional content for CAI adaption, developing CAI testing, developing CAI drill and practice modules, developing CAI tutorial modules, and reviewing and editing CAI modules. To demonstrate that the use of the models could be easily learned, they were presented to two graduate level classes in administrative education. After 50 minutes of instruction and discussion, the students were asked to individually compose their own frames (the text-question-response blocks common to the 'Tutorial', 'Drill and Practice' and 'Test' models). To demonstrate that the models not only could be learned but would produce a positive attitudinal change toward CAI, a 23 item instrument was selected that was developed by Luskin, et al. to measure perceptions of areas considered critical to CAI. This instrument was used for pretest/posttest measurement of two graduate level classes in administrative education who received 50 minutes of instruction and discussion of the CAI models. Findings A total of 16 students were asked to individually attempt to write frames after receiving 50 minutes of presentation and discussion of the models. Of the 16, only two (12.5%) had ever written programs in BASIC and 11 (68.8%) had never written a program in any computer language. Despite this lack of BASIC experience which is recommended for instructors desiring to use the models, 13 (81.3%) composed errorless frames on their first attempt. The three who initially made errors were successful in their second frame writing efforts. A total of 32 students received the pretest/posttest instrument to measure attitudinal change as well as the presentation of the models. Of the 32, 28 (87.5%) had never written a computer program. A statistical analysis of the test items showed significant improvement in positive attitudes toward CAI on five crucial items. Twelve significant gains in the means of confidence items occurred. No impairment of positive attitudes was observed. Conclusions The models developed in this dissertation do facilitate the implementation of computer aided instruction modules. The findings indicate that not even a working knowledge of BASIC is required for most instructors desiring to use the models. Interaction with the models does appear to produce a positive attitudinal change toward CAI in most educators -- at least on a short term basis which is all this study examined. Recommendations Long term attitudinal effects should be measured for both the CAI module author and the user. As more CAI authors prepare modules, the costs/benefits of CAI should be closely scrutinized. Both short and long term effects of CAI on students' interactions with one another should be studied. The effects of CAI on students' interactions with faculty members should be studied.