ItemDecentralization and role conflict in Catholic elementary schools : post Vatican II(1983) Murphy, Mary Elizabeth,1946-; Hughes, Larry W.; Hennessey, Colleen; Jones, Howard L.; Miller, Albert H.The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of perceived decentralization on role conflict among administrators of Catholic elementary schools. Literature on changes in the authority structure of the Catholic Church and Catholic elementary schools, centralization/decen- tralization, and role conflict contributed to the development of the problem statement and questions for the study which are summarized as fol lows: For each role, what is the relationship between perceived decentralization and perceived conflict about roles? How well can each respondent perceive conflict about the role of the other respondents? Which type of respondent will tend to perceive the greatest degree of conflict about the pastor's role, the principal's role, and the school board member's role? Which group perceives the highest degree of decentralization? Which type- of respondent is perceived to experience the highest level of role conflict? The centralization/decentralization subscale of the Hall-Bonjean Bureaucracy Scales was used to measure the independent variable, centralization/decentralization. The Rizzo, House, and Lirtzman Role Conflict Scale was used to measure the dependent variable, role conflict. The population for this study was composed of pastors, principals, and school board presidents from 43 parishes in the Galveston-Houston Diocese. [...] ItemA study of perceived need deficiencies of faculty members of Texas public senior colleges and universities(1983) Hodes, Boaz; Herrscher, Barton R.; Liberman, David B.; Ginsburg, Mark B.; Bisesi, Michael R.; Norris, Donald; Willems, Edwin P.Various studies have been conducted on issues of job satisfaction, motives, and needs. These studies have been executed in business, industry, public schools, and at the community college level. Although many researchers have addressed themselves to need deficiencies and their effect upon student motivation, little attention has been paid to the perceived need deficiencies of faculty members at public senior colleges and universities or to the effect of these perceived deficiencies on their motivational processes. This study is based on the theoretical framework of Maslow's hierarchy of needs and work generated in the area of adult development by Levinson and Hodgkinson. For the purpose of this study, need deficiency is being defined as a variable that measures the gap between the actual and ideal availability of a particular characteristic of a faculty member's functional position. The hypotheses are that rank and age affect dominant needs and need deficiencies of faculty members. A path model was developed to test these hypotheses. [...] ItemPerception of role conflict problems reported by heads of selected private schools : the Solomon Schechter Day Schools in North America(1983) Jordan, Cecile Blank; Hughes, Larry W.; Ginsburg, Mark B.; Freiberg, H. Jerome; Miller, Albert H.; Creswell, John L.This research study examined the perceptions of role conflict problems for the heads of certain private schools. Two hypotheses were tested which probed the relationship between eight specific independent variables and the dependent variable, problems with role conflict perception (PRCP) for these school heads. Hypothesis One predicted significant relationships between contract status, tenure, clearly stated job descriptions, gender, educational background and the PRCP reported by the heads in this study. It was predicted that male heads would experience less PRCP than would female heads; and that contract status, tenure, educational background, and clearly stated job descriptions would be predictors of PRCP. Hypothesis Two predicted negative correlations between the age of the head, the number of years as an educational administrator, the number of years in current position and the PRCP reported by the heads in this study. (i.e.. Those older, more experienced heads would perceive the least conflict.) [...] ItemPerceived effectiveness of an office administration curriculum(1983) DuFrene, Deborah Daniel, 1954-; Georgiades, William D. H.; Brown, Kenneth W.; Herrscher, Barton R.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the two-year Office Administration curriculum at Nicholls State University in Thibodaux, Louisiana. Procedures: The 98 graduates of 1980-82, all female, and their employers were surveyed via researcher-made questionnaires to determine perceptions regarding a list of office-related competencies. The list included both academic/technical and personal/social competencies. A pilot study preceded the actual study to validate instruments. A graduate response rate of 72.2 percent was achieved: employer response totaled Z0 percent of graduate response. Graduates responded to each competency in three ways: (1) importance in their office-related job, (2) degree of emphasis given in the Office Administration curriculum, and (3) self evaluation of competence. A five-point scale was used. Graduates also provided job and education-related information so that a graduate profile could be developed. Employers responded to the list of competencies in two ways: (1) importance in graduate's job, and (2) evaluation of graduate's level of competence. Hypotheses: Three hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of significance. HO1: There will be no significant difference between importance of a job competency and degree of emphasis placed on that competency in the Office Administration curriculum, as perceived by the graduate. Graduate responses to the two categories were matched to produce mean discrepancy scores. Significant differences resulted for 47 of 86 competencies; the null hypothesis was rejected in these cases. However, 34 of the 47 were negatively discrepant, indicating curricular emphasis greater than job importance. Positive discrepancies occurred in three academic competencies: Telephone Usage, Handling Mail, and Document Retrieval; and in ten affective areas: Ability to Follow Directions, Adaptability to Change, Ambition, Attitude/Outlook, Concern for Productivity, Emotional Maturity, Human Relation Skills, Manners/ Mannerisms, Priority Setting, and Punctuality/Attendance. Ho2: There will be no significant difference between importance of a job competency as perceived by graduate and by employer. Analysis occurred between graduate and employer responses to Importance in Job. Significant differences occurred for 12 of 86 competencies; the null hypothesis was rejected in these cases. In 10 cases. graduates gave higher ratings than did employers: Dictation to Others, Management Organizing, Telephone Usage, Alphabetic Filing, Grammar Punctuation, Spelling, Ambition, Manners/Mannerisms, and Priority Setting. Employers rated higher for Mathematics Fractions and Mathematics Equations. Ho3: There will be no significant difference between graduate's perception of her competence in an area and employer's perception of graduate's competence. Analysis consisted of comparison of graduate's self evaluation and employer's evaluation of the graduate's competence. Significant discrepancies occurred for 9 of 86 competencies; the null hypothesis was rejected in these cases. For seven discrepancies, employers rated higher than did graduates: Posting/Accounts Management, Interpretation of Legal Materials, Insurance, Mathematics Decimals, Mathematics Fractions, Mathematics Percentages, and Priority Setting. Graduates rated higher in two Typewriting competencies: Letters and Memos, and Reports and Manuscripts. Conclusions: 1. Curricular emphasis generally meets or exceeds job requirements for academic competencies. Affective areas tend to show deficient curricular emphasis. 2. Responses of graduates and employers as to job importance and to degree of graduate competency in selected areas generally agree. Where differences occur, graduates tend to give higher job ratings and lower self ratings than do their employers. Recommendations: 1. Academic areas of inadequate curricular emphasis should be addressed. Areas showing significant emphasis beyond job requirements should be further examined, as over-preparation in these areas may lead to neglect of other needful areas. 2. The affective competencies should be evaluated in terms of their place in the curriculum. 3. On going follow-up is recommended as a regular part of curricular evaluation. As perceptions of graduates and employers have been established to be fairly consistent, efforts can be concentrated on graduates who, as a group, are more accessible. Employers should not, however, be removed from the evaluation effort. ItemAttributions for failure among low and high self-concept learning disabled and nondisabled students(1982) Swedlaw, Shelley H.; Herrscher, Barton R.; Schunk, Dale H.; Croft, John C.; Gaa, John P.The purpose of the study was to determine whether learning disabled and nondisabled students indicated different attributions for failure at an achievement task; causal preferences were examined for both low and high self-concept students within learning disabled and nondisabled samples. In addition this study investigated whether differences existed in locus of control orientation among learning disabled and nondisabled students. The sample consisted of 40 students from grades 4 and 5. Based on scores on the Piers-Harris Children"s Self-Concept Scale, 10 students in each group were identified as having high self-concepts and 10 as having low self-concepts. Each student was administered the LOCITAD, a locus of control measure, and then was given instructions in a novel task (how to divide fractions). Following establishment of a base rate (number of problems completed in 5 minutes), the students were asked to again attain the base rate within the same time span, but were not actually given the entire time to complete the task. They were then asked to attribute their failure to one or more of the following causes: lack of ability, high task difficulty, lack of effort, or bad luck. Analysis of variance procedures were applied to all measures according to a 2 (Type of Student: Disabled-Nondisabled) x 2 (Self-Concept Level: High-Low) design. Significant F ratios were analyzed further using the Newman-Keuls multiple comparison list. The results indicated that the stability of attributions given differed by type of student: nondisabled students gave more unstable attributions, whereas learning disabled students tended to give more stable attributions. No significant differences were found in locus of control orientation between learning disabled and nondisabled groups. These findings suggest the importance of examining the relationship between academic attributions and academic performance in order to understand the achievement behavior of learning disabled students. The results of the present investigation also have implications for attribution retraining interventions that may complement the remedial strategies used by teachers. This study should be replicated in schools of different socioeconomic and ethnic compositions. Further research should utilize a larger number of girls, and might investigate attributions of distinct populations based on type of learning disability and employ a more open-ended attribution assessment format in order to investigate a wider range of possible attributional choices. ItemThe relation of locus of control, sex-role identity, and assertiveness in baccalaureate nursing students(1982) Stevens, Kathleen R.; Evans, Dale W.; Frankiewicz, Ronald G.; Holcomb, J. David; Morrow, James R., Jr.Although the nursing profession provides a major and vital portion of health care, the ability of nurses to influence the health system and even control their own profession has been limited. In the past, nursing has been viewed as a subordinate, sex segregated occupation. However, with the role of nursing developing toward greater independence and responsibility, nurses are being urged to exercise more self- and professional-determination. Certain personal characteristics are necessary if nursing students are to successfully fulfill this contemporary role in nursing. The traditional image of the nurse portrays the feminine traits of submissiveness, passivity, and subjectiveness. In contrast, the contemporary role calls for self-confidence, assertiveness, and competency. The need for this study derives from the desire to morefully understand the characteristics of those preparing for the profession of nursing in relation to their self-determination. Specifically, there was a need to understand the interrelations existing among the specific aspects of personal control, sex-role identity, and assertive behavior of nursing students. Relatively little empirical evidence existed regarding these aspects in the population studied. The objectives for the study were: (1) to describe the profiles of locus of control, sex-role identity, and assertiveness of beginning and graduating nursing students, and (2) to describe how these attributes are related in a nursing student population. Data were reported from 185 beginning female nursing students and 125 graduating female nursing students in state-supported baccalaureate nursing programs affiliated with major medical centers in Texas. Three self-report questionnaires and a demographic data form were used. The Levenson (1972) locus of control scale measured perception of personal control on three subscales: Internal Control, Powerful Others, and Chance. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1974) measured sex-role identity on Masculinity and Femininity scales. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (Rathus, 1973) assessed Assertiveness. The demographic data supported the conclusion that the sample reflected the trends existing in the study population. The sample had 32.4[percent] fewer graduating students than beginning students, reflecting national attrition rates, and a trend toward older students was detected. Profiles of locus of control, sex-role identity, and assertiveness for the nursing student sample were described. These profiles were compared to referent groups reported in the literature. The profiles can be used as referent values in future studies. Reliability of the measures was moderate to high. Five research hypotheses were posed. Hypothesis 1 was tested with the statistical procedure multiple correlation to determine the relation between assertiveness and locus of control subscales together with sex-role identity sub scales. Internal Control and Masculinity were found to be significantly related to Assertiveness. Hypothesis 2 examined the nature of the interrelation among the subscales of locus of control and sex-role identity using a canonical correlation technique. Significant relations between the variables and an underlying pair of canonical variates were found. Locus of control and sex-role identity were minimally related and both are necessary for a more comprehensive explanation of Assertiveness. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test Hypotheses 3, 4, and 5, examining the main effect of the control variable. School, the interaction effect, and the main effect of the variable of greatest interest. Status (Beginning and Graduating). As anticipated, significant differences for the control variable. School, were detected. The nonsignificant Status-by-School effect enabled testing of the main effect. Status. The MANOVA and post hoc analyses yielded significant differences for Status: Graduating students scored significantly higher on Assertiveness than Beginning students. Graduating students also scored significantly higher on the scales of Powerful Others and Masculinity than Beginning students. With higher levels of Assertiveness and Masculinity, Graduating students, as compared to Beginning students, could possibly better fulfill the contemporary role of the independent and competent nurse. The significant relations among the study variables warrant further attention. Experimental manipulation of variables to discover causality is recommended. ItemThe development of hospital cost regression models for use as analytical review tools by CPAs(1984) Thibadoux, Gregory M.; Seiler, Robert E.; Grimes, Richard M.; Alford, R. Mark; Gamble, George O.The objective of this study was to develop disaggregated hospital production cost models and to test the usefulness of such models as possible analytical review tools. Such models can theoretically be used as either substitutes for tests of details or as "attention getting" devices during the substantive testing phase of the financial audit. A sample population of 200 hospitals (located in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) was derived from the 1980 American Hospital Association data tape of the 1979 Annual Survey of Hospitals. The dependent variables were payroll, benefit, interest, depreciation, other, fee, and total expenses. The independent variables were either descriptors of output or product-mix. Seven models were developed by separately regressing a set of thirteen independent variables onto each of the seven expense variables. Five models had R2's of .70 or higher and were significant at the .05 level; payroll, benefit, depreciation, other, and total expenses. Interest and fee expense models were eliminated from further consideration. The predictive power of these five models was tested on a hold-out sample of 100 hospital (selected from the same data tape). The mean relative error for the models ranged from 24 to 64%. The models' standard errors were too large for these five models to be useful as substitutes for tests of details. With the exception of the depreciation model (which has a large mean relative error), the models appear to hold promise as "attention getting" analytical review tools. ItemFactors affecting parental satisfaction with admission, review, and dismissal/individualized educational program meetings for the handicapped(1982) Murphy, Susan G.(Susan Grace); Stevens, Jody L.; Ginsburg, Mark B.; Meisgeier, Charles H.; Sanders, Stanley G.; Spuck, Dennis W.The purpose of this study was to test whether there were significant positive relationships between the independent variables, the education of the parent, the occupation of the parent, the level of parent experience in ARD/IEP meetings, the level of parent experience in workshops and/or meetings about the ARD/IEP and parents' rights and responsibilities, the severity of the child's handicapping condition, the age of the child, and the length of time the child has been enrolled in special education, and the dependent variables, parent satisfaction with the process and outcome of the ARD/IEP meeting. Parent satisfaction with the process and outcome of the ARD/IEP meeting was hypothesized to have a conceptual relationship with the level of individual need fulfillment and the involvement with other people as they communicate and interact in these small temporary group meetings. The independent variables assessed aspects of the parents' situation and experience which would seem to influence their needs and interactional competence in meetings conducted by school personnel. The research was conducted in a school district in southeast Texas. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of handicapped students attending an ARD/IEP meeting. Data were collected from 48[percent] of the subjects in the sample. The results of the data analyses indicated that within this district, the parents of handicapped students are highly satisfied with both the process and outcome of the ARD/IEP meeting. The parents' response to the comment section of the questionnaire indicated their satisfaction with the nature of the interaction, the amount and clarity of the information provided, and the staff member's sincere interest in the education of the child. The only two significant relationships which were observed involved the level of severity of the handicapping condition of the child with the process of the meeting and the level of parent experience in ARD/IEP meetings with the outcome of the meeting. However, these two independent variables were weakly correlated to the respective dependent variables, and they were not found to be significantly related to the dependent variables in the regression analyses. From the results of this study, recommendations were made for future research and practice. ItemOn the nature of congruency and incongruency between teachers" cognitive reality and their observed behavioral reality(1982) Pearson, James; Ginsburg, Mark B.; Freiberg, H. Jerome; LeCompte, Margaret D.; Melville, Margarita B.In an attempt to clarify questions dealing with the nature of congruency and incongruency between a person"s thoughts and actions, the study sought to examine and refine a synthetic theoretical framework relying on approaches used by ethnosemanticists in anthropology and phenomenological sociologists. The framework focuses on the conceptualization of cognitive reality. Cognitive reality is conceived to be the primary source of explanation of observed behavioral reality. A person"s cognitive reality is conceptualized as consisting of two types of elements or items of information: cognitive elements and sub-cognitive elements. Cognitive elements are conceived to be hierarchically structured with lower level cognitive elements providing the meaning for higher, more general level cognitive elements. The extent of relevancy of these cognitive elements for the person is indicated by sub-cognitive elements that deal with the credibility and lack of credibility of cognitive elements. The theoretical model was refined through the study of standards for student behavior (norms) in relation to two teachers in a private school setting. Methodologically, the investigator used techniques and strategies appropriate to this synthetic theoretical framework. In particular, ethnographic methodology was stressed involving concentrated observation over a three month period of time in conjunction with a variety of semi- and unstructured interviews. Data was collected and analyzed following a constant comparative approach utilizing triangulation techniques. Exemplar norms were sampled in relation to this approach Findings from this study indicated that the theoretical model is viable. Thus, a teacher"s behavior must be understood in relation to a complex configuration of different thoughts (cognitive and sub-cognitive elements). For example, it was found that the fact that a teacher cognitive element is incongruent with this teacher"s classroom behavior can be explained with reference to more relevant cognitive elements that exist at the same or higher cognitive level. Also, the methodological role that intersubjective understanding between the investigator and people being studied can play in social scientific and educational research became evident from the study. Finally, it was proposed that by gaining insights from the study, educational personnel may be better able to deal effectively with their school environments. ItemFactors affecting collective behavior among teachers : a study of social structural characteristics, ideologies of professionalism and relative deprivation(1982) Rothman, Marlyn; Ginsburg, Mark B.; Spuck, Dennis W.; Dworkin, A. Gary; Hooker, Richard LeeTeacher collective behaviors include joining associations, collective bargaining and political activities. The literature shows that teachers with certain social structural characteristics are likely to either engage in or favor collective action. Relative deprivation is one concept used to explain why this is true. In addition, literature in the sociology of professions introduces the notion that varying conceptions of professionalism may affect the degree to which teachers are predisposed to engage in collective action. The proposed non-recursive path model shows that professional ideologies directly affect each of the dependent variables of association membership, attitude toward collective bargaining and attitude toward political action as well as indirectly affecting attitude toward collective bargaining and attitude toward political action through association membership. Social structural variables were hypothesized to indirectly affect each of the dependent measures through relative deprivation as well as to indirectly affect attitude toward collective bargaining and attitude toward political action through association membership. The scales used to measure conceptions of professionalism, relative deprivation, political action and collective bargaining were developed and/or modified from existing scales. The social structural characteristics were measured by additional items on the questionnaire. The sample used in the study consisted of 282 teachers from the Houston Independent School District. Path analysis was used to analyze the data with a .05 level used to test the significance of the paths hypothesized in the model. The data generally did not support the model. Only education level and race directly affected relative deprivation. Relative deprivation affected only attitude toward political action. Conceptions of professionalism as practitioner rewards affected only attitude toward political action. Conceptions of professionalism as practitioner power/autonomy/control indirectly affected attitude toward political action through relative deprivation. Of the relations not hypothesized but found to occur, race directly affected attitude toward collective bargaining and both years of experience and education level directly affected association membership. Additional indirect effects occurred due to the high correlations among the independent variables. The practical implications of this study for both school administrators and teacher association leaders are discussed. The limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are listed. ItemA comparison of the ideal role of the physical therapist as perceived by clinicians and academicians(1982) Rogers, Elizabeth A.; Evans, Dale W.; Buckner, William P., Jr.; Holcomb, J. David; Johnson, Geneva R.Physical therapy education has been influenced by social and economic pressures over the years. A major influence currently being felt comes from the 1980 Resolutions Committee 14-79 of the American Physical Therapy Association. This resolution mandates that all physical therapy educational programs be at the postbaccalaureate degree level by 1990. Although a great deal of literature has been written about the various tasks of the physical therapist, no research has been identified which describes the ideal role. Educators have the dual task of preparing the student for current professional practice and assisting the student in preparing for the ideal, future status of the profession. To develop an appropriate curriculum, the current professional status and the ideal status must be identified. A Likert-type questionnaire, developed by the researcher, was used to compare physical therapy clinicians and academicians perceptions of the ideal role of the physical therapist. The reliability coefficient for the questionnaire was .92. The questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 405 clinicians who were members of the California chapter of the American Physical Therapy Association. Sixty academicians in the eight educational programs were asked to complete the mailed guestionnaire. The total returns on the 430 questionnaires that were delivered were 88.4[percent]. All these questionnaires were used in the analysis of the data. Data collected were analyzed using chi-square and analysis of variance. The major findings of this research identified, described, and compared the ideal role of the physical therapist as perceived by clinicians and academicians. The perceived ideal role of the physical therapist is multifaceted. Eleven of the 14 facets included in the questionnaire that were agreed upon by both the clinicians and academicians were: (1) researcher, (2) diagnostician, (3) independent practitioner, (4) consultant, (5) provider of patient care services, (6) educator, (7) administrator, (8) communicator, (9) political activist, (10) professional characteristics, and (11) personal characteristics. In general, academicians were in stronger agreement on all facets that were accepted as a part of the ideal role of the physical therapist than were clinicians. One new facet, preventive care in physical therapy, was suggested as a part of the ideal role of the physical therapist. The three facets which were not statistically significant were: (1) problem solver, (2) clinical specialist, and (3) public relations function. ItemThe development of a model for designing logically sequenced biology curricula(1982) Wells, Dorothea S.; Blankenship, Jacob W.; Aumann, Glenn David; Cunningham, Claude H.; Jones, Robert M.The purpose of this study was to develop a model for logically sequencing high school biology curricula and to present this sequence in a form useful to students, biology teachers, and curriculum writers. The importance of structure to learning has been discussed by many theorists. The supposition of this study was that a logical sequence can provide this structure. The final sequence was developed in three stages. The subject matter for each stage was "The structure and function of the cell." The first stage involved producing a preliminary sequence using the concepts in a single high school biology textbook. This sequence was field tested and showed promise. As a result, a more extensive model was constructed. A Concept List was compiled using the recommendations of two science educators. These concepts were designated high level as they were general in nature and required others for full understanding, and because they appeared higher in the sequence than more specific information. The three most widely used college biology texts in the United States, and the three most widely used high school biology texts in the United States, were selected and used as sources of low level concepts. A superordinate concept was selected from the high level list as a unit concept. This concept, in propositional form, was analyzed for any words which needed further development for fuller understanding. The definitions of these words were designated subconcepts and placed in a level below the superordinate concept. This procedure was followed until specific organelles were reached. This second sequence, the Revised Sequence, was sent to a panel of judges composed of high school biology teachers in the Jefferson Parish Schools in suburban New Orleans, Louisiana. The panel was asked to respond to a questionnaire concerning the logic of each step of the sequence. The response of the panel members was overwhelmingly positive. To produce the Final Sequence, minor modifications for clarification, based on comments by the panel, were made in the Revised Sequence. The conclusion drawn from the questionnaire was that a logical sequence had been developed for this topic. It is possible to arrange the concepts for a unit in the form of a pyramid with the lowest level, or most specific concepts at the bottom by analyzing each proposition. The method used for selecting and arranging concepts avoids the arbitrary arrangement used by some authors. The final sequence is one sequence for a unit on "The structure and function of the cell." Different unit concepts would lead to different sequences. The proposed model provides a means for developing and presenting a unit showing the interrelationship of all parts of the unit, and providing the structure needed for learning. It avoids presenting data to students in an atomized form. ItemEducational needs on the post-secondary level in Latin America : a forecast for the eighties through a modified Delphi approach(1982) Soria Nicastro, Oscar; North, Stewart D.; Atkinson, Gene; Felder, B. Dell; Proff, Fred C.; Tiller, Frank M.Expansion of post-secondary level enrollment in Latin America during the last two decades, 1960-1980, created new problems for educational systems and institutions. Post-secondary systems have expanded, but it is also true that improvement has not come simultaneously. Therefore, the central purpose of this study was to identify the educational needs of the post-secondary level in Latin America for the eighties as perceived by Latin American experts selected from several constituencies within educational systems. ItemDetermination of essential content as the basis for development of a curriculum model on care of the induced abortion patient for baccalaureate nursing faculty(1982) Olson, Marteen L.; Evans, Dale W.; Buckner, William P., Jr.; Holcomb, J. David; Rosenfeld, BernardIn the late 1960s and early 1970s abortion legislation became less restrictive allowing greater numbers of women the option of abortion. Health professionals have had few guidelines and limited training in providing services for these women. Nursing faculty have had to deal with significant social change on both a personal and professional basis. Though legislation has become more restrictive in the 1980s, there are still at least one million abortions annually in the United States (Henshaw, 1982, p. 5). Certainly the nursing care of these women needed to be addressed schools of nursing. This research study was designed to identify, delineate, and develop content for baccalaureate nursing students on the care of the abortion patient. ItemThe effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity and locus of control among hyperactive male children(1982) Porter, Sally Shell,1942-; Omizo, Michael M.; Amerikaner, Martin; Summerlin, Mary Lue; Goodman, GayChildhood hyperactivity, recently relabeled as "attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity". Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III, has an estimated incidence of 5 [percent]-20[percent] among school children, and is ten times more common among boys than among girls. The hyperactive syndrome has traditionally been treated with drug therapy and behavior modification techniques. However, the intervention of relaxation training/large muscle exercise has recently been used successfully to treat the behavioral correlates of hyperactivity. While the behavioral syndrome of hyperactivity has been fraught with lack of agreement as to definition, etiology and diagnosis, it is now generally recognized as an attentional deficit with the primary characteristics of impulsivity and overactivity. Recent research has shown the hyperactive youngster to be more likely to perceive an external locus of control than the normal youngster. Since the hyperactive child sees no relationship between his efforts and outside events, he is logically discouraged from expending what he perceives to be useless effort on his part. Relaxation training/large muscle exercise involve hyperactive youngsters learning methods by which they might achieve direct control and management of anxious states of tension. When these methods are practiced by parents as well as teachers, not only is the child"s total environment utilized in treatment, but the parent is further equipped with effective methods by which he might benefit himself in learning relaxation techniques useful in living with a hyperactive child. This study was designed to measure the effects of relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, locus of control and impulsivity among hyperactive boys. This study determined (1) to what extent group relaxation training/large muscle exercise alters the impulsibity, attention to task, and locus of control of hyperactive boys, and (2) to what extent parental involvement alters the impulsivity, attention to task, and locus of control of hyperactive boys. The hyperactive child who learns relaxation training large muscle exercise will evidence greater attention to task, less impulsivity and a more internal locus of control than the hyperactive child who does not learn such techniques. Experimental Group II, hyperactive children who have relaxa tion training/large muscle exercise emphasized by parents as well as in the school environment evidenced greater attention to task, less impulsivity, and a more internal locus of control than experimental group I hyperactive children who only have such techniques emphasized in the school setting. The Teacher Rating Scale was used to select a sample of thirty-four hyperactive suburban elementary school male students, who had not been medicated for their symptoms during the past three years. Subjects were assigned randomly to group relaxation training/large muscle exercise, group relaxation training/large muscle exercise utilizing parental involvement, or group control treatment.Relaxation training/large muscle exercise was implemented through group instruction. The control group listened to narrated children"s stories selected to induce. neither arousal nor relaxation. Treatment was provided in three twenty-five minute sessions (with an additional two meetings provided for the parents in the group utilizing parental involvement) scheduled at weekly intervals. Pre- and post-treatment data on attention to task, impulsibity, and locus of control were collected one week preceding and following this sequence, using, respectively, the Matching Familiar Figures Test and the Nowicki-Strickland Scale. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) procedures were used to test for differences between the two experimental groups and the control group, as well as between the experimental groups on the dependent variables of impulsivity, attention to task, and locus of control. If MANOVA techniques revealed that significant differences-did exist, post hoc discriminant analysis techniques were implemented to determine which variables independently proved to be significant discriminators and which variables, after controlling for the effect of all other variables, proved to be valid discriminators ItemThe relationships between perceived stress and job satisfaction, locus of control, and length of teaching experience(1982) Stone, Jackie Alexander; Croft, John C.; Spuck, Dennis W.; Freiberg, H. Jerome; Herrscher, Barton R.The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between perceived stress in teachers and their level of job satisfaction, locus of control orientation and length of their teaching experience. Stress was defined as a syndrome of potentially negative affects of apprehension, tension, low self-control, emotional instability, and suspicion usually accompanied by potentially pathogenic physiological and psychological changes (such as increased heart rate and anger or depression). It has been hypothesized to have a theoretical relationship with job satisfaction (defined as the summative affective orientation of an individual toward his work). Hypothesis 1 predicted that a high level of perceived stress would be associated with a low level of job satisfaction. The second hypothesis predicted that low stress would be associated with internal locus of control orientation. The locus of control concept refers to the degree to which individuals attribute their life events to their own behaviors. Internal locus of control represents a high degree and external locus of control represents a low degree of such attribution. The third hypothesis predicted a positive relationship between job satisfaction and locus of control orientation. The next three hypotheses, H4 , H5 , and H6 , examined the relationships of length of teaching experience with the other variables in the study. H4 predicted an association between high stress and low experience. H5 predicted an association between high experience and high job satisfaction. H6 predicted an association between high experience and internal locus of control. H7 examined the combined contributions of the independent variables to the explanation of variance in the dependent variable. It predicted that length of teaching experience, locus of control orientation, and job satisfaction would account for more variance in perceived stress level than would any of the constructs operating alone. A step-wise multiple regression model was used to test this hypothesis. The major findings of this study were as follows: 1. High levels of perceived stress in teachers were associated with low job satisfaction and external locus of control orientation. 2. Length of teaching experience was not demonstrated to have a significant association with perceived stress level, locus of control orientation or job satisfaction. 3. Teachers exhibiting characteristics of high experience, high job satisfaction, and internal locus of control orientation were found to have lower levels of perceived stress than were teachers exhibiting only one or two of these characteristics. The findings of this study have provided support for the combination of the independent variables job satisfaction and locus of control orientation, in the explanation of stress in teachers. Also, the data presented in the analysis of the sub-scales of job satisfaction have provided useful evidence for use in further research on the dimensions of the construct as they operate in the setting of the teaching profession. ItemThe relationship of testosterone concentration, spatial ability, and sex role identification in women teaching secondary mathematics and primary grades(1982) Ware, Dorothy Lee; Sadowski, Barbara R.; Creswell, John L.; Hollis, Loye Y.; Gaa, John P.This study was designed to investigate the relationship between testosterone concentration, spatial ability, and levels of masculinity and femininity in women teaching secondary mathematics and primary grades. The study involved 51 women currently teaching in the Greater Houston area; 23 primary teachers (K - 3) and 28 secondary mathematics teachers. Testosterone concentration was to be measured by the collection of saliva from each subject but problems with the validity of the data caused the variable testosterone concentration to be eliminated from the study. Spatial visualization was measured by the Punched Holes test from the Reference Kit of Cognitive Factors (Educational Testing Service) and spatial orientation was measured by the Group Embedded Figures test (Oltman, Raskin, & Witkin). Levels of masculinity and femininity were measured by the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmrich, & Stapp, 1974). The major findings of the study were as follows: 1. There were significant positive correlations between spatial visualization (p<.0001), spatial orientation (p<.0001), level of masculinity (p<.01) and teaching field choice among women teachers. 2. The set of variables, taken together (spatial visualization, spatial orientation, level of masculinity, and level of femininity) significantly discriminates between secondary mathematics teachers and primary teachers (p<.0001). Among women teachers, no significant correlation was found between level of femininity and teaching field choice. 3. Spatial visualization and spatial orientation, separately, were very significant discriminators between secondary mathematics teachers and primary teachers. 4. Levels of masculinity and femininity taken together significantly discriminated between secondary mathematics teachers and primary teachers (p<.01). These variables used in conjunction were better discriminators than either employed alone. 5. Applying the standardized canonical discriminant function for the set of variables (spatial visualization, spatial orientation, level of masculinity and level of femininity) to the actual group cases, the predictive percentage for total group classification was 80.39%. This is in reality a somewhat inflated percentage as the predictive equation was derived from the same data. ItemAssessing the effects of instructional supervision training on principals(1983) Johnson, Shirley A.; McIntire, Ronald G.; Hughes, Larry W.; Spuck, Dennis W.; Rabinow, Kathryn L. E.; Mandina, GenevievePrincipals are expected to assume responsibility for improving teachers' instructional performance. Unfortunately, the quality of that leadership is seriously questioned by both teachers and principals. There is little evidence that classroom supervision as it is most often conceived has had any appreciable effect on improving the process of teaching and learning in the schools. The problem addressed by this study is the proficiency with which principals offer leadership in implementing and conducting assessments that provide specific information necessary for the identification of teacher strengths and weaknesses and appropriate guidance for instructional improvement. This research was designed to determine the effectiveness of an instructional supervision training program for school principals. The subjects were assistant principals that had the same supervision responsibilities as those of principals. Investigation was made into the effects of the training program on principals' supervisory skills in affecting teachers' attitude toward supervision and their principal's supervisory skills, and on teachers' instructional behavior in the classroom. To address the problem, an integrated model of supervision was implemented that brought together a) a set of frameworks for observing teacher effectiveness, b) a cycle of supervision and conference types, and c) human relations skills. Assessment center technology was employed to determine the effect of the model on principals' supervisory behavior and teachers' instructional behavior. This form of evaluating training is a formal procedure that provides simulation activities that mirror the job situation as closely as possible. [...] ItemFactors related to retention of teaching and missionary personnel in overseas work environments(1982) Thompson, Jesse Glen; North, Stewart D.; Anderson, James E., IIAtkinson, Gene; Bishop, John E.; Spuck, Dennis W.This study analyzed the importance of various factors related to the retention of missionary personnel working in overseas work environments. The loss of a missionary is more than the loss of an employee. It is, in many cases, the loss of an entire ministry in that foreign country and the program the missionary represents. ItemRedefining collage as a process : the impact of technology on eight selected visual arts forms(1982) Wilder, Bonnie; White, Dennis W.; Miller, Phyllis K.; Werblo, Dorothy; Way, GeorgeThe development of art materials and technical resources has become so great that the major forms of the visual arts which in the past have, for the most part, been considered separate, now merge and overlap to such an extent that any attempt at delineating boundaries is artificial. The researcher believed that art education would benefit by a study of past and present materials development within the visual arts because of the possibility that new perspectives of aesthetic and educational value might appear. Rather than remaining unaware of new information and resources, art educators, more appropriately, should continuously seek to remain informed of any innovations which offer new sources of strength for teaching. The study was divided into three major parts. The main portion began with the Review of the Literature and a discussion of definitions of collage and its history. Current trends in art show an increasing process-orientation toward art requiring a variety of skills on the part of the artist as art forms merge. A series of time lines next traced the technological evolution of eight selected visual art forms, portraying some of the most significant dates in the development of man-made materials and art processes from man"s earliest beginnings to 1981 AD. Their function was primarily to indicate to the reader the correlation between the invention of tools and materials and the corresponding appearance of particular art forms and methods of expression. The final portion began with a discussion of the impact of technology on the United States since 1800, and included possible effects upon the artist and art educator. The summary emphasized the need for art educators to increase speed of application of new technological resources available to them. Suggestions were cited for art education in regard to overall attitude changes and technological skills needed to stay in step with change. Suggested applications at all levels from elementary through higher education were included.