A proposed plan of instruction in business education for secondary schools of the United States



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Part I of this study includes four periods of development, the period of colonial development, the period of the struggle for national, commercial, and economic independence, the period of economic integration and industrial organization, and the period of rapid growth following World War I which characterize the evolution of business education in the United States. Part II takes into account (1) the physical setting for the business education which includes rooms, furniture, equipment, and supplies, (2) factors considered in curriculum building, involving the people to be trained, the conditions under which instructions are given, and the program itself, (3) business-teacher preparation which includes academic and professional training, in-service training, practical experience either in teaching business subjects or in working in the business world, aid teacher personality, (4) the presentation of subject matter, involving the best methods according to research and actual experiences of those actively engaged in the field, and (5) as a supplement to the classroom work of the business education department is the business education club for students studying business courses. Methods of Procedure. The plan for carrying out the investigation involves two steps. First, an attempt is made to show the development of business education in the United States. Second, a plan is presented by which systematic organization and instruction may be offered in business education on the secondary level. Data obtained through questionnaires sent to more than one hundred secondary schools in the United States, library facilities, and many years of experience in teaching in the field furnish the information for the study. Findings Tabulated data reveal the following: 1. Traditional practices in the courses offered in business education are still maintained in the majority of the schools. 2. Course enrollments amount to approximately 70 percent of the total school enrollment. 3. Of the teachers of business education 81.8 percent of them have majors in their field. 4. The number of teachers having had busines steacher training courses amounts to 72 percent. 5. Only 15 percent of the one hundred schools have in-service training for the teachers. 6. Only 32 percent of the schools operate distributive programs. 7. Visual aids are used in the teaching of business education by 76 percent of the schools. 8. Of the one hundred schools, 48 percent of them have organized business education clubs. 9. The schools expressing a desire for a broader V offering in the pre-vocational years of the students total 76 percent. Conclusions. Since, in the light of the findings of this study, business education has been principally on a traditional basis, the following conclusions are reached: (1) a revision of the present business curriculum is necessary to adequately train the students for their places in the business world, (2) the demand is not only for a rich program of courses but also for properly trained teachers for offering such work, (3) the installation of distributive programs and vocational courses with a placement service for students enhances the business education departments, (4) visual aids are needed assets for the best results in teaching all courses of business education, and (5) business education clubs are a valuable supplement to the business education program. Recommendations. Based on the outcome of the study also are the following recommendations which seem justified: 1. That a flexible program of instruction such as set up in this study be made available to all schools. 2. That unless teacher-training institutions offer sufficient work to properly fit teachers for the job of teaching business education courses, in-service training be offered in the secondary schools. 3. That the use of visual aids in teaching the various business courses be given serious consideration by all schools that are able to provide equipment necessary to carry it forward. 4. That distributive and vocational education with pupil-placement service in the field be an area for further investigation.