Drawn-On-Skin Liquid Electrodes for Motion Artifact-Free Neurological Signal Recording



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



Signal quality is of the utmost importance when recording from the human body. In order to maximize the accuracy of biosignals recorded for monitoring and application, electrode systems are tailored to overcome the specific impediments the body’s properties cause. In the case of electroencephalography (EEG), electrodes designed for recording are split into two groups: wet and dry, split by the usage or absence of a conductive electrolyte applied to the surface of the scalp. Both of these electrode types have issues that plague their usage. In order to subvert these issues, a conductive ink to apply customizable drawn-on-skin (DoS) electrodes is proposed. The DoS electrode system has demonstrated capabilities to record electrocardiogram (ECG) and electromyogram (EMG) successfully, without motion artifacts caused by movement induced deformation at the skin-electrode interface when compared to conventional electrode types. In applying the DoS electrode system, along with the implementation of protective insulation and encapsulation, a discrete, low visibility, motion artifact-free recording system can be created for high-quality electrophysiological signal acquisition. Herein, the characterization of DoS electrodes is described, and their implementation for motion artifact-free EEG and EOG recording, compared with conventional EEG electrodes, is demonstrated.



conformable electronics, motion artifact-free, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electrocardiogram


Portions of this document appear in: Ershad, F., Thukral, A., Yue, J. et al. Ultra-conformal drawn-on-skin electronics for multifunctional motion artifact-free sensing and point-of-care treatment. Nat Commun 11, 3823 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17619-1