The Role of Paternal Self-Efficacy in Father Involvement



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This research study sought to understand the associations between father involvement and paternal self-efficacy, partner support, co-parenting alliance, and relationship satisfaction. Recognizing that fathering occurs in a complex system of relationships and influences, this research sought to examine the association between father involvement and other factors that measure fathering behaviors in a co-parenting relationship. The study is a cross sectional research design using a snowball sampling method for surveying fathers and mothers about their perceptions of fathering factors. Data from a sample of 191 electronic surveys were collected from February 2014 to June 2014. The survey consisted of five previously validated scales measuring variables of co-parenting alliance, father involvement, partner support for parenting, relationship satisfaction, and paternal self-efficacy. Findings indicate consistent parental role expectations for father involvement, report of actual involvement, and report of paternal self-efficacy. The discrepancy between paternal expectations and reported father involvement was related to paternal self-efficacy: Fathers who reported high levels of involvement were three times more likely to have high paternal self-efficacy than fathers with lower levels of involvement. Among all other relationship factors, paternal self-efficacy was the strongest factor related to father involvement. A father with strong paternal self-efficacy was 1.5 times more likely to be involved. Other factors influencing father involvement included co-parenting alliance and income earner status.



Fathering, Involvement, Self-efficacy