Figures of Merit for Durable Icephobic Coatings



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From aviation systems and infrastructures to energy systems, icephobic surfaces play a critical role in humanity's daily lives. However, developing these surfaces for low-temperature applications remains a challenge. In the last few decades, a few forms of icephobic surfaces are developed including liquid-infused, non-wetting, and hydrated surfaces. However, their practical applications are limited due to high freezing temperatures, high ice adhesion, ice accretion, low mechanical durability, and high fabrication costs. Here, we present a comprehensive definition for icephobicity through thermodynamics, heat transfer, and mechanics of the ice/water interfaces. To accurately predict ice growth rates on different substrates and under different wind conditions, mathematical models are developed based on the conservation laws. We elucidate the mechanisms that nanoscale physics could be used to develop exceptional icephobic surfaces. A method for ice adhesion measurement is presented that uses physics of fracture at ice-icephobic material interfaces to eliminate discrepancies between reported ice adhesions from different laboratories. In addition, a comprehensive set of durability metrics is casted that includes mechanical, environmental, and chemical durability aspects. Through above knowledge, a thorough framework for comparing the performance of state-of-the-art icephobic surfaces is developed and the main weaknesses are identified.



Icephobic surfaces, Ice adhesion, Ice nucleation, Ice growth, Durability, Standard metrology, Figures of Merit


Portions of this document appear in: Irajizad, P., Nazifi, S., & Ghasemi, H. (2019). Icephobic surfaces: Definition and figures of merit. Advances in colloid and interface science, 269, 203-218; and in: Hakimian, A., Nazifi, S., & Ghasemi, H. (2020). Physics of Ice Nucleation and Growth on a Surface. Ice Adhesion: Mechanism, Measurement and Mitigation, 87-110; and in: Hakimian, A., Nazifi, S., & Ghasemi, H. (2020). Metrology of Ice Adhesion. Ice Adhesion: Mechanism, Measurement and Mitigation, 217-236; and in: Hakimian, A., Nazifi, S., & Ghasemi, H. (2020). Durability Assessment of Icephobic Coatings. Ice Adhesion: Mechanism, Measurement and Mitigation, 521-545.