A COMPARISON OF THE TWO WAY DUAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL BILINGUAL PROGRAMS ON TAKS READING ACHIEVEMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHOOL LEADERS
Olivares, Josefa G 1976-
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The achievement gap between English language learners (ELLs) and English only students has been documented for decades. A study of the National Assessment of Education Progress in 2005 highlighted a 46% gap between English language learners and English-only students (NCES, 2006). With the Hispanic population growing at a rapid pace, meeting the needs of English language learners is essential. The study includes a sample of 147 students in the 5th grade who are identified as Limited English Proficient and were receiving services from either a Two Way Dual or a Developmental Bilingual Program. The sample will include the following 5th grade students who meet the following conditions: (a) students continuously enrolled in the district during the 2010-2011 school year, either in Two Way Dual or Developmental program, (b) who have been tested on the 2010 and 2011 TAKS reading test, (c) non-English language students who have been tested on the 2010 and 2011 TAKS reading test, (d) who have not been retained and (e) who did not receive special education services. The data for the 2010-2011 reading TAKS 5th grade test were retrieved from the research department of the study District. The study used an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to compare the means of the dependent variable (2011 TAKS Reading Test) in the independent variables three groups (Two Way Bilingual Program, Developmental Bilingual Program and the non-ELL program) and their impact at the fifth grade reading levels. The study used Chi Square analysis with Bonferroni Alpha Adjustment test to determine if there were significant differences with the dependent variable (2011 TAKS Reading Test) in students meeting the passing standard for the independent variables three groups (Two Way Bilingual Program, Developmental Bilingual Program and the non-ELL program). The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version XXI was used to process and analyze the achievement data. The study will provide district administrators, principals, and policymakers’ important perspectives on the role the two programs play in the reading achievement of English language learners. The research was a quantitative study using archival reading TAKS scores. The research provided insight into which language program produces greater academic gains for English language learners, Two Way Dual or Developmental over the same time periods. The study showed the Two Way Dual Bilingual program had significantly greater gains in the 2011 reading TAKS compared to the Developmental Bilingual Program. ELL students who are in classes with non-ells students achieve at a higher level in the reading TAKS. The Chi Square analysis with Bonferroni Alpha Adjustment for RQ1 indicated that they were significant differences at p < .025 between two groups of the independent variable the Two Way Dual and the Developmental Bilingual Program in the dependent variable (2011 TAKS Reading test scores) at p < .001. The Chi Square analysis with Bonferroni Alpha Adjustment for RQ2 indicated that they were no significant differences at p < .025 between the independent variable with three groups (Two Way Dual, Developmental and non-ELLs and the dependent variable (2011 TAKS Reading test scores) at p =.048. The ANOVA for RQ1 indicated that they were significant differences at p < .007 on the TAKS Reading Test scale scores between the ELL students served in the Two Way Dual and Developmental Bilingual Programs in the 5th grade with the Two Way Dual Bilingual program showing a greater gain in reading achievement. The ANOVA for RQ2 indicated that they were significant differences at p < .030 between the 2011 TAKS Reading test scale scores of the non-ELL students and ELL students served either in a Two Way Dual or Developmental Bilingual Programs in the 5th grade. This information will benefit school leaders, teachers, researchers, policy makers, and community leaders. This study may serve as means to make changes in the types of bilingual programs being offered in schools.