Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Studies of Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx with NH3 on Fe- and Cu-Zeolite Monolithic Catalysts
Metkar, Pranit 1986-
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The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3 is considered to be the most promising technique for the efficient reduction of highly detrimental NOx (to N2) emitted from diesel engine vehicles. Amongst the various catalysts available for SCR, Fe- and Cu-zeolite catalysts are found to be highly stable and efficient towards maximum NOx reduction over a wide temperature range. Cu-zeolites are more active at low temperatures (< 350 oC) while Fe-zeolites are more active at high temperatures (> 400 oC). We carried out a comprehensive experimental and kinetic modeling study of key SCR reactions on Fe- and Cu-zeolite catalysts and present a detailed understanding of mass transfer limitations and kinetics and mechanistic aspects of various SCR reactions on these catalysts. Experiments carried out on monolith catalysts having different washcoat loadings, washcoat thicknesses and lengths indicate the presence of washcoat (or pore) diffusion limitations at intermediate to high temperature range in all the SCR reactions. A detailed analysis of the effect of temperature on the transitions between various controlling regimes (kinetic, washcoat diffusion and external mass transfer) is presented. Agreement in the differential kinetics studies of NO oxidation and standard SCR (NO + O2 + NH3) reactions indicates NO oxidation is the rate determining step for standard SCR. A detailed kinetic model capturing key features of all the SCR reactions is developed. This model accurately predicts the experimentally observed NOx conversions over a wide temperature range and different feed conditions. Finally, a systematic study of various SCR reactions is carried out on a combined system of Fe- and Cu-zeolite monolithic catalysts to determine if a high NOx conversion could be sustained over a wider temperature range than with individual Fe- and Cu-zeolite catalysts. Amongst various configurations, a dual-layer catalyst with a thin Fe-zeolite layer on top of a thick Cu-zeolite layer resulted in a very high NOx removal efficiency over a broad temperature range of practical interest. The kinetic model accurately captures the experimental data with a combined system of Fe- and Cu-zeolite catalysts and provides further insights into the catalyst arrangements for maximum NOx reduction efficiency.