The Immunoregulatory Effects of Vitamin D3 on Mycobacterium infection
Gough, Maya E.
Graviss, Edward A.
May, Elebeoba E.
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a global health concern, infecting 10.4 million people and causing 1.8 million deaths a year. Infection primarily takes place in the lungs but can spread throughout the body to other organs, such as spleen, liver. In a healthy person TB can present with no symptoms and it is estimated that 1/3 people have latent TB. Vitamin D3 deficiency has been closely tied to incidence of TB and outcome of TB infection. Vitamin D3 is produced by the human body through exposure to UV light or obtained through the consumption of a limited number of plants, fungi, fish, and manufactured oral supplements. Classical Functions – Aid in the absorption of calcium and phosphorous. Non-Classical Functions – Modulate innate and adaptive immune response. Through the vitamin D response element (VDRE), vitamin D3 when bound to its receptor, is thought to act as a transcription factor and modulate production of certain cytokines and effector molecules, including IL-10, IL-12,TNF-a, NO, H2O2, and many more. In the presence of vitamin D3 the phenotypic response of macrophages is altered from that of control; these modulatory effects are what our study examines.