THE IMPACT OF MATERNAL PARENTING STYLES ON GOAL ORIENTATIONS, SELF-EFFICACY, AND USE OF METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES FOR MATHEMATICS AMONG HISPANIC HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
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Research has revealed that a significant achievement gap is present between Hispanic and White students (Aud & Hammes, 2011). The extant literature on the math achievement of Hispanic students has attempted to explain the factors responsible for this underachievement including the influence parents have on the academic achievement of their children. The purpose of this study was to examine how three types of maternal parenting styles were related to Hispanic high school students’ math performance. Additionally, the study examined the mediating effects of goal orientations, self-efficacy, and use of metacognitive strategies on the relationship of maternal parenting styles and students’ math performance. The sample was comprised of Hispanic high school students (N = 312) who were enrolled in either Algebra I, Geometry, or Algebra II. Associations between maternal parenting styles, goal orientations, self-efficacy, use of metacognitive strategies, and math performance were quantified using mediation analyses based on the principles of Baron and Kenny’s (1986) causal steps approach. Results of the multiple regression analyses indicated that all three parenting styles predicted students’ math performance with permissive having a negative effect on math scores. Authoritarian positively predicted both mastery-avoidance and performance-approach goal orientations. Authoritative positively predicted mastery-approach, while permissive positively predicted performance-avoidance and negatively predicted mastery-avoidance. Both authoritative and permissive styles positively predicted self-efficacy and metacognitive strategies. Results also confirmed the performance-approach orientation as a mediator between the authoritarian parenting style and math performance. The relationship between the authoritative parenting style and math performance was mediated by the mastery-approach goal orientation. Mediation effects were confirmed with post-hoc Sobel tests. Limitations and practical implications for these findings were discussed.