Response to intervention with older students with reading difficulties


Addressing the literacy needs of secondary school students involves efforts to raise the achievement levels of all students and to address specifically the needs of struggling readers. One approach to this problem is to consider the application of a Response to Intervention (RTI) model with older students. We describe an approach to enhanced literacy instruction for middle school students that includes the essential components of any RTI model: universal screening, progress monitoring, and multi-tiered instructional service delivery. We use screening and progress-monitoring tools specifically tied to state accountability tests and a multi-tiered instructional framework that addresses the literacy needs of all middle school students, including struggling readers. Presently a large-scale, multi-site randomized trial is under way to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of this RTI model for middle school students.



Response to intervention, Literacy


Copyright 2008 Learning and Individual Differences. This is a post-print version of a published paper that is available at: Recommended citation: Vaughn, Sharon, Jack M. Fletcher, David J. Francis, Carolyn A. Denton, Jeanne Wanzek, Jade Wexler, Paul T. Cirino, Amy E. Barth, and Melissa A. Romain. "Response to Intervention with Older Students with Reading Difficulties." Learning and Individual Differences 18, no. 3 (2008): 338-345. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2008.05.001. This item has been deposited in accordance with publisher copyright and licensing terms and with the author's permission.