Student cognitive and affective entry characteristics as related to student achievement in an individualized social studies unit of instruction



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



Benjamin S. Bloom presented a theory of learning causation in his 1976 book Human Characteristics and School Learning. This theory supported by Bloom"s studies and those of others, suggested that up to 50 percent of the variance in achievement among students was due to possession or lack of possession of cognitive entry behaviors necessary to begin a unit of instruction. Bloom also postulated, that the affective entry characteristics of learners accounted for up to 25 percent of the variance in achievement of learners. Bloom also provided the basic requirements for a research unit in which to test his hypothesis. The quality of this research unit is dependent upon the appropriateness and timeliness of cues, participation, and reinforcement provided by the teacher and/or learning materials in the task. The instructional unit for this study was designed to contain these components.



Social sciences--Study and teaching (Secondary), Academic achievement