The Roles of Organizational Identification and Disidentification on Restaurant Employees’ Behavioral Intentions



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The purposes of this study were to develop a reliable and valid multi-item scale that measures restaurant employees’ OI and ODI, to identify the respective antecedents of OI and ODI and to examine the relationships among OI, ODI, OCB, intention to stay and intention to leave. The first step of Study 1 specifed the domain of the construct according to Churchill’s ( 1979) suggestions. A preliminary list of OI and ODI measurements were generated based on previous measures and information from the interviews. Semi-structured personal interviews were conducted to generate a broad range of items. Many of the items were redundant so lists of items were down to fifty-four OI items and forty-eight ODI. An expert group consisting of a faculty member, restaurant employees, Ph.D. students with restaurant working experiences reviewed the items and redundant, irrelevant and ambiguous items were removed or modified. 14 OI items and 15 ODI items retained through the expert group meeting. The remained 29 items were included in the questionnaire. To identify clusters of variables from the expert meeting, an online survey was conducted. For item refinement, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) assessed and Cronbach’s alpha and item-total correlation were reviewed. The EFA revealed single dimension scale of 11 OI items and 10 ODI items. Another online survey using MTurk was conducted to assess validity and reliability. In accordance with the results of EFA, the uni-dimension was adequate to measure OI and ODI respectively in the new data and the scales were valid and reliable. In Study 2, ten hypotheses were tested. The OI and ODI scales were used to examine the relationships with their respective antecedents and consequences. A two-step approach was used in this study. Before the structural equation modeling (SEM), the internal and external consistency of the scales was tested with the measurement model, and then the SEM was used to assess the relationships among research variables. Perceived organizational support (POS) and perceived brand authenticity (PBA) were significant predictors of employees’ OI and POO was a significant predictor of ODI but PUOB did not have a significant relationship with ODI. Both OI and ODI were positively associated with the intention to stay. OI was positively linked to OCB but negatively linked to the intention to leave. ODI was positively linked to the intention to leave while negatively linked to OCB. Also, some dispositional characteristics such as restaurant type and position had significant moderating roles on the relationships between research variables.



Organizational identification, Organizational disidentification, Employee retention, Employee loss, Restaurants, Hospitality, Dual-factor theory