Memory differences between subtypes of disabled learners



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Memory for verbal and nonverbal stimuli was evaluated in normally achieving children and two groups of disabled learners: (1) arithmetic disabled (A);and (2) reading-spelling-arithmetic disabled (R-S-A). Each child received a free-list verbal memory task consisting of twelve unrelated words (6 high imagery, 6 low imagery) and a free list nonverbal memory task consisting of organized dot patterns. Both of these tasks were administered using selective reminding procedures that permit the calculation of separate scores representing storage and retrieval memory processes. In addition, a visual recognition and reconstruction task consisting of an organized and unorganized scene was also administered. Each child was required to identify the objects viewed on a slide presented for 15 seconds. Following this they were instructed to place the correct objects in the same arrangement as that viewed in the slide. After administration of all the tasks (approximately 20 minutes) each child was asked to recall as many words as possible from the list after which, a multiple choice recognition task was administered. The results from the verbal selective reminding task revealed that the R- S-A children differed from the controls and A children on both retrieval and storage indices derived from the low imagery words. The R-S-A children also differed from the controls on the retrieval and storage indices derived from the high imagery words. [...]



Memory, Slow learning children