A study of communication signal fading



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The fading of communication signals through the natural medium has taken an increased significance during recent years because the demand and need for higher signal-to-noise ratio in communication systems is further complicated by the increased density of information transmitted on a particular carrier in an allowable bandwidth. In particular, the use of the scattering phenomenon as an important means of communications made it high susceptibility to various types of fading and subsequently the numerous methods devised to compensate for fading were developed and are critically examined. This study contains a comprehensive treatment of the salient aspects of the fading phenomenon by giving the history of significant events relating to the subject of fading. Then the fading mechanisms for troposphere, ionosphere and space and various methods of compensating for and/or reducing fading are explored. The study is concluded with a list of recommendations, and a comprehensive list of references.