Forward modeling of vertical seismic profiles



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The major thrust of this work is the development and application of three modeling programs. Specifically, these programs forward model both normal and offset vertical seismic profiles (acoustic case only). The first program works in the time domain utilizing difference equations to generate a primary only VSP, a multiple only VSP, or a primary [plus] multiple VSP. The second program works in the frequency domain utilizing a propagation matrix method to model a normal incident, plane-wave VSP. This method incorporates the effects of absorption and velocity dispersion. A modified reflectivity method is used to calculate both normal incident and offset VSPs in the third program. The modified reflectivity method includes all surface and internal multiples, the determination of the response for a buried source, and the calculation of the effects of absorption and velocity dispersion. This method employs the Sommerfeld integral to model a VSP which would result from a point source. To compare and contrast the modeling capabilities of each of these programs, numerous synthetic VSPs were generated. The model used to generate the VSPs is typical of the geology of East Texas.



Seismometry, Seismic waves