Heat transfer from an array of resolved particles in turbulent flow
The physalis method for resolved numerical simulation of particulate flows, recently extended to include particles-fluid heat transfer, is applied to the turbulent flow past a planar particle array perpendicular to the incoming mean flow. The array consists of nine equal spheres. Periodicity boundary conditions are imposed on the boundaries of the computational domain parallel to the mean flow. The Reynolds number based on the particle diameter and mean incident flow is 120, the Taylor-scale Reynolds number is close to 30, and the ratio of particle radius to the Kolmogorov length is about 10. A detailed characterization of the flow and heat transfer is given including probability distribution functions of temperature and streamwise velocity, contour maps of the temperature fluctuations, diagonal Reynolds stresses, turbulent heat flux, and the various contributions to the energy budget. Turbulence moderately increases the heat transfer and considerably shortens the thermal wake of the particles. Temperature and streamwise velocity develop very differently downstream of the spheres in spite of the fact that the Prandtl number equals 1, because of the blockage by the spheres, which has no counterpart for the temperature.