An analysis of the historical and geographical influences affecting the growth of the Ethiopian educational system utilizing a model for educational development planning



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In February 1974 a political revolution began in Ethiopia. One of its main causes was widespread dissatisfaction with the educational system. The structure and organization of the formal educational system, which only began in 1908, had developed slowly and relied heavily on imported models.It was only responding minimally to the social, economic and political needs of this chronically poor, underdeveloped nation and its people. The Purpose. The purpose of the study was to design an outline plan for the future development of the Ethiopian educational system. The Problems. Five questions were posed: 1. What were the main historical and sociological factors that have influenced the development of the educational system? 2. What are the geographical forces that impact the system today? 3. What were the reasons that led to the crisis in education in the mid-Seventies? 4. What are the basic national education needs? 5. What educational models can be utilized in a future plan for education? Procedures. Four steps were followed in the analysis. 1. The parameters of the study were delimited within the framework of the Human Resource Assessment approach advocated by Harbison. Only the formal education system element of this model was considered and this was further delimited to a consideration of the administrative aspects of the educational system. 2. A Systems Planning Model was developed expressly for this analysis. It consisted of three sets of variables: (a) The Initiating set, dealing with identified historical and sociological variables. (b) The Mediating set, which identified the major geographical constraints and resources affecting education. (c) The End Product set, in which the elements of a future plan of administrative structure and organization for Ethiopian education were proposed. 3. The research techniques of historiography and geography were reviewed and utilized. 4. Data from the initiating and mediating variables was synthesized into the goals, objectives and outline structure for an educational plan. [...]