Perceived Inclusion Climate for Leadership Diversity: Conceptualization and Scale Development




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Growing concerns exist regarding a lack of diverse representation at the leadership level throughout all employment sectors nationwide. While organizations have taken steps to improve diversity and inclusionary work practices for employees, limited studies investigate how employees’ inclusion climate perceptions can be fostered through policies that promote the acceptance of leadership diversity. Moreover, no instrument exists in the literature or industry that measures employees’ perceived inclusion climate for leadership diversity. Therefore, the current study aims to fill this void in the literature by developing a Perceived Inclusion Climate for Leadership Diversity (PICLD) Scale. Study 1 details three phases for generating and checking for face and content validity of scale items. In phase one, interviews were conducted with four leaders and four employees in the hospitality sector using an inductive approach. Interview data were used to add, delete, refine, or modify a pool of scale items generated to measure the new PICLD construct. In phase two, this study conducted a face validity check for the 13 scale items developed to measure the new construct. In phase three, a content validity check was conducted on the 13 items designed to measure the new PICLD construct. In total, the new PICLD construct has a total of 12 measurement items. Study 2 extended the new PICLD Scale’s nomological network by testing its relationship with other variables (i.e., diversity beliefs, organizational justice, performance, engagement, and turnover intention) to complete the scale development process. The results indicate that PICLD positively correlates with employees’ perceptions of organizational justice. Moreover, diversity beliefs did not moderate the relationship between PICLD and organizational justice as predicted. Finally, organizational justice had a significant mediation effect between all three proposed relationships: PICLD with performance, PICLD with engagement, and PICLD with turnover intentions. In conclusion, the newly developed PICLD Scale contributes to literature and can be adopted by scholars studying diversity, equity, inclusion, and leadership. Moreover, the results indicate that PICLD has a significant and positive relationship with employees’ perceptions of organizational justice, indirectly influencing their work behaviors, such as performance, engagement, and turnover intentions. This dissertation provides various theoretical and practical implications on the importance of fostering an inclusive climate that promotes the acceptance of leadership diversity and how it can influence employees’ working behaviors.



Leadership, Inclusion Climate, Organizational Justice, Performance, Engagement, And Turnover Intention