An Examination of the Implementation of a Two-Way Dual Language Model in a Rural Community



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



Background: As school districts across the United States face an increase in the number of English Learners (ELs) enrolling in public schools, it is imperative that districts spend time reviewing and analyzing their current programs to ensure that the needs of ELs are met. Federal and state laws require the implementation of bilingual programs for schools with 20 or more students per grade level that speak the same language. Research has shown that the most beneficial bilingual education model is a dual language program model and that effective dual language programs share similar characteristics. The dual language program is considered additive, strengthening students’ first language (L1) while learning a second language. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate and evaluate the implementation of the Gómez & Gómez Dual Language Enrichment Model in a two-way strand in two kindergarten classrooms during the first year of implementation in a rural area to determine the successes and growth opportunities. In addition, this study reviewed perceptions related to the implementation of the program from the perspective of the teachers, principals and a district administrator. Results from this study will assist school districts considering the implementation of a two-way dual language program. This research provided the current district an evaluation of the first-year implementation, and recommendations for an effective implementation in first grade and future cohorts. Methods: The research was designed as a qualitative case study which permitted me to collect data in its natural setting. The participants were the two teachers implementing the two-way dual language model, the campus principals, and the assistant superintendent of curriculum and instruction. I used observation protocols to document the fidelity of the model and interview protocols to determine the teachers’ and administrators’ perceptions regarding the implementation of the model. The data collected from the observations was coded and analyzed for reoccurring themes, and the interviews were analyzed for participants perceptions about the implementation of this new program. Results: The implementation of the two-way model provided opportunities for the program to experience success and continual growth. Among these successes were using teachers who had prior experience teaching and prior knowledge of how to implement a one-way dual language model. Opportunities for growth were centered around the crafting of a vision statement that aligns with dual language, drafting an implementation plan for the second year and upcoming years of the program, writing a dual language curriculum and acquiring the resources to equitably implement the program. Perceptions about the program implementation revealed benefits and challenges with the implementation. Conclusion: Research has shown that two-way dual language programs are the most effective bilingual education program and that they provide opportunities for all students to become bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. As dual language programs continue to gain popularity, it will be crucial for universities to review their teacher preparation programs and equip future teachers with the tools to teach in dual language classrooms. Universities should also consider revisiting their educational leadership programs to ensure that future administrators are prepared to lead dual language campuses and districts



Dual language, Rural schools, Two-way