Exclusionary Discipline Placements



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School discipline has been and is still an issue in schools. Today, in-school suspension, out-of-school suspension, alternative disciplinary placement, and expulsion are the most commonly used disciplinary consequences for student misbehaviors (Allman & Slate, 2010). Researchers (e.g., Evanson, Justinger, Pelischek, & Shulz, 2009; Rodney, Crafter, Rodney, & Mupier, 1999; Smith, 2005) have concluded that excluding students from the learning environment may be harmful to their academic achievement. In this quantitative research, data from a large suburban Texas school district, with an emphasis on a freshmen class of 539 students, were analyzed to determine the extent to which student demographic variables and school-related variables could predict student receipt of in-school suspension, out-of-school suspension, or any disciplinary consequence. Through use of Ordinary Least Squares Regression (OLS) using a backward elimination technique procedures, statistically significant regression models were revealed. One variable, number of discipline referrals, was present in all of the statistically significant results. Each time, number of discipline referrals constituted the variable with the highest degree of importance in the regression equation. Similarly, in each analysis, number of discipline referrals from school had the strongest relationship with the dependent variable (i.e., days spent in in-school suspension, days spent in out-of-school suspension, and days spent in any disciplinary consequence). Students who received discipline referrals more often were more likely to experience significantly more days in in-school suspension, in out-of-school suspension, and in any disciplinary consequence than were students who received less or no discipline referrals. Absence from school was statistically significant in four of the six regressions. Students who were absent more often were more likely to receive OSS and any disciplinary consequence. The variable of meeting the TAKS Math standard was a statistically significant predictor in one of the statistically significant results. Students who failed to meet the TAKS Math standard were more likely to experience significantly more days in in-school suspension than were students who met the TAKS Math standard. Other variables that appeared in at least one statistically significant analysis were enrollment in special education, failing to met the TAKS Reading standard, and gender. These variables were identified as being much less important than were the variables of number of discipline referrals, school absences, and meeting the TAKS Math standard.



Discipline, Exclusionary discipline, High school discipline