A study of the achievement and transfer effects of additive subtraction and class inclusion training

Date

1976

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Abstract

Purpose of the Study. The purpose of this research was to study achievement and transfer effects of training additive subtraction and class inclusion. Piaget maintains that children do not understand the concept of class inclusion until they reach the age of ten or eleven. However, studies by Kohnstamm and Sheppard have found that children can be trained to solve class inclusion tasks prior to this age. This study attempted to confirm Kohnstamm's and Sheppard's findings. Several developmental studies have found that children perform better on take-away subtraction than on comparison or additive subtraction. However, little research has been done to determine the effects of training one specific type of subtraction on subtraction problem solving abilities of children. This study attempted to determine the effect of training additive subtraction on subtraction problem solving and class inclusion. Also, an attempt was made to determine the effect of training class inclusion on subtraction problem solving. Procedures. The population for the study was 75 first grade children in a metropolitan suburb. Each subject was administered the Test of Quantitative Comparisons as a pre-test, and then randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups. They were: (1) additive subtraction training, (2) class inclusion training, and (3) control group. The training period was six consecutive school days. Two post-tests were administered the seventh day: (1) the Inclusion Test, and (2) the Houston Addition and Subtraction Problem Solving Test, Subtraction Subtests. Findings. Nineteen hypotheses were tested under two categories: (1) achievement and (2) transfer. Results of the analysis indicate that training additive subtraction and class inclusion was a significant effect on achievement. However, training additive subtraction and class inclusion does not have a significant transfer effect. Hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of significance.

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Keywords

Number concept, Whole and parts (Psychology), Transfer of training, Learning, Psychology of

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