Scattering of radar signals by layered rain volume



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Scattering of radar signals by varying depths of rain volumes is studied by employing an ultrasonic laboratory experiment. Certain statistical characteristics such as mean, variance and third moment of the forward scattered simulated radar return are computed. Probability density functions and cumulative probabilities of the mean amplitude and phase of the received signal are obtained for various simulated rain intensities and various depths of the rain shower volume. These experimentally determined densities for the amplitude fluctuations are found to be more closely normal than Rayleigh and the phase distributions are approximately normal as opposed to the usually assumed uniform probability densities. Curves are furnished for the probability density graphs and cumulative density functions on normal probability graph papers. The effects of increased number of rain sheet volumes and different rain intensities on the mean amplitude and phase of the forward scattered signal are also studied and experimental curves showing such effects are also given.