Observation of children's emotional expressions in family home centers

dc.contributor.advisorKagan, Norman I.
dc.contributor.advisorPower, Thomas G.
dc.contributor.committeeMemberWilliams, Robert E.
dc.creatorLaBiche, Katayoon K.
dc.description.abstractThis research was focussed on the behavioral expressions of emotions in infants and young children and the overt coping behavior of the children and their caregivers. Events that upset infants and young children, children's reaction's to upsetting events and the management of emotions were recorded and studied through observation of children's and caregiver's behavior. A series of 2 (Age) by 2 (Sex) analyses of variance was conducted on observational data. The dependent variables were the upsetting events (nine categories of upsetting situations), the children's emotional responses (four categories of responses), and children's coping behavior and caregiver's comforting methods ( nine categories of coping strategies). 2 scores were computed to examine the relationship between certain situations, responses and methods. Restriction was the most common cause of distress; fear was the least common. The most commonly observed response was crying; physical aggression was the least common. Child problem solving was the most common coping method, and Child initiates physical contact was the least common. Younger children became upset more frequently than the older children, and three of the upsetting situations showed significant age effects: loss of object (more common for older children), desires contact, and no apparent reason (more common for younger children). There were no significant differences between the sexes in relation to upsetting events. Significant age differences were found for three of the response codes: crying (more common for younger children), physical aggression, and opposition (more common for older children), but again there were no significant differences between the sexes. Significant age differences were found for four coping strategies used by the child or the caregiver to deal with the distressing events: caregiver distracts, caretaking, child distracts self (more common for younger children) and caregiver reassurance (more common for older children), but no significant sex differences were found for the coping methods. Z scores showed that there were significant relationships between certain situations and certain responses or methods. In general caregivers were more nurturant in response to upset in girls than to upset in boys. In contrast, caregivers left boys to solve their problems on their own more often than they did for girls.
dc.description.departmentPsychology, Department of
dc.format.digitalOriginreformatted digital
dc.rightsThis item is protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. Section 107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work assume the responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing, or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires express permission of the copyright holder.
dc.subjectEmotions in children
dc.subjectEmotions in infants
dc.titleObservation of children's emotional expressions in family home centers
thesis.degree.collegeCollege of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
thesis.degree.departmentPsychology, Department of
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Houston
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Science


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