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The purpose of this qualitative, multiple case study was to examine the decisions three teachers made while planning to integrate portable technology in technology-rich elementary classrooms. The three participants were selected by their district's Digital Learning Coordinator because of their high level of technology integration. The study investigated these teachers’ planning habits for instruction incorporating portable technology, such as Chromebooks. Observations, interviews, and lesson plan reviews constituted the qualitative data collected during approximately eight weeks. Peer debriefing, along with member checks, guaranteed that themes did not have a limited point of view, establishing credibility and dependability (Anney, 2014, Carspecken, 1996; Day, 2015).

The Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model was a useful descriptor for each teacher’s technology planning level, and each used their own level of TPACK to drive their integration of technology in their classrooms and in their planning. The three participants utilized one-to-one (1:1) technology with varying degrees of effectiveness, and each planned differently for its use.

The cross-case analysis guided the formation of four assertions: a) Experienced teachers with technology at their disposal are unlikely to change their planning, but will simply include t echnology when they deem it an appropriate and convenient tool to achieve their ends; b) Standardized technology does not necessarily lead to standardized uses or planning; c) Observable high and even skillful use of technology does not necessarily indicate strong planning; and d) Teachers are not motivated to change the way they plan when their students consistently excel at high stakes tests. The study findings have implications for teacher educators, teachers, and school and district leaders. Understanding how one’s own level of TPACK and beliefs affect the choices teachers make during planning for technology integration can guide teachers and districts to identify teachers’ specific needs in order to make a 1:1 initiative successful.



Chromebook Planning TPACK One-to-one