Second generation discrimination : unequal educational opportunity in desegregated southern schools



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This study examines the patterns of black student overrepresentation in special education classes and black faculty underrepresentation in employment in Southern school districts with at least 1 percent black from 1968 through 1974. Black student overrepresentation in retentions in the same grade, suspensions and expulsions in the same district is examined from 1971 through 1974. Representation of blacks in these categories is so disproportional when compared with white representation that a prima facie case exists for the existence of second generation discrimination—continuing racial discrimination Southern desegregated schools. Efforts to correlate the degree of second generation discrimination with several variables—percent black, urban or rural nature of the district, desegregation enforcement agency, and degree of coercion necessary to achieve desegregation—fail to reveal strong relationships. Second generation discrimination is a severe problem that pervades the South. Equal educational opportunity remains an unfulfilled goal in spite of the massive desegregation effort. It is unlikely that second generation discrimination will be eliminated in the near future given the administrative enforcement realities.