A descriptive study of a methodology for developing interactive video courseware for art education instruction



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The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for the development of interactive video courseware for secondary level art education instruction. The interactive video courseware module, which was intended to teach the concept of motion as related to two and three dimensional works of art, was developed in stages which constituted the methodology. The developmental stages were (a) the instructional design model, which included needs assessment, task analysis, definition of the target audience, and a design structure for the organization of the content; (b) a model of the design and development process; (c) the design of the courseware module; (d) the production of the module; (e) the evaluation of the module; and <f) tne analysis of data. Three research questions were investigated: Would a methodology result from the process of completing each stage of development? Would the experimental subjects score significantly higher on a posttest of content than on a pretest of content? Would the responses to an attitude survey posttest be positive? Data was also gathered through observation of the experimental subjects as they worked with the interactive video courseware and through formal interviews with the experimental subjects. The interactive video courseware was designed to be used with an Apple lie microcomputer, a 1/2 inch industrial video tape player, and a Whitney Educational Services interface. Interaction consisted primarily of question and response; options to review, move forward, or to repeat a segment; and gestures such as tracing on the television screen movement in a painting or sculpture. Pencil and paper were used for pretests, posttests, and courseware drawings. Ten experimental subjects were randomly chosen from 10 intact art classes. Five of the experimental subjects were in grades 7 and 8; five were in grades 9, 10 and 11. The remainder of the students in the 10 classes (133 junior high students and 64 senior high students) were the control group. The control subjects received no treatment, but completed a pretest. Pretests were administered to the control and experimental groups during a class session by the regular art teacher one week before the treatment session. Both the pretest and the posttest, taken only by the experimental subjects, consisted of 10 multiple choice questions and one question instructing the subject to draw a running dog. Experimental subjects completed the interactive video courseware in a small study room removed from the regular classroom. All equipment was visible to the subject. Each subject was instructed to proceed at his or her own rate, to follow the directions on the television screen, and to ask questions if the directions were not clear. Each subject had one class period in which to complete the interactive video courseware, the instruments and the interview. A one-tailed T-test was used to analyze the data from the multiple choice section of the pretest. The pretests posttests of the experimental group were analyzed using a two-tailed T-test. The drawings from both the pretest and the posttest were scored by an expert panel of three art teachers. The experimental subjects also completed a 14-item attitude survey posttest which was analyzed by calculating a total positive score for each statement and using Yule's Q to determine any association between grade level and attitude. Selected observations were recorded and analyzed componential1y. Results of the pretest analysis indicated no significant difference between the control and experimental subjects. However, the experimental subjects showed a significant increase from pretest to posttest scores. The obtained T-value for the junior high school and senior high school experimental groups was 1.11, significant at the .05 level. For the experimental group pretest drawings the Mean score was 2.96 (the possible high score was 5); for the posttest the Mean score was 3.34. The recorded observations indicated that experimental attended closely to the television screen and that they responded verbally and physically to the courseware. However, clarifications were requested from nine subjects. Five subjects had difficulty locating correct keys on the keyboard. Responses to the interview questions were primarily positive. Subjects were able to project uses for interactive video courseware in other areas of study and suggested no changes in the courseware.



Art, Computer-assisted instruction, Video tapes in education