Family-Related Outcomes from Parents’ Attending Status and Alcohol Consumption at Leisure Events
There are different types of leisure events that provide entertainment for family participants, especially for parents and children. Two common leisure events, art festivals and sports events, provide occasions for families to spend time together, interact, communicate, and develop relationships through having affective event experiences (e.g., happiness, relaxation). Prior research has focused primarily on economic impacts and participants’ motivations of art festivals and sports events. Hence, there is a lack of research about affective event experience from a social perspective, especially a gap to understand the antecedents and consequences of participants’ affective event experience. This study addresses this gap identifying how the a) parents’ attending status and b) alcohol consumption influence their affective event experience (e.g., happiness, relaxation), in turn, family cohesion and family satisfaction. Both study 1 (i.e., art festivals) and study 2 (i.e., sports events) explore the effect of a) parents’ attending status and b) alcohol consumption on family cohesion and family satisfaction through happiness and relaxation, but in different contexts. An experimental design with a 2 (parents’ attending status: with a child or without a child) × 3 (alcohol drinking consumption: water, a cup of beer, four cups of beer) between-subjects factorial design is adopted in both study 1 and study 2. Study 1 focuses on art festivals. This study found participants who attend art festivals with children feel less happy and relaxed. Additionally, compared to those drinking four cups of beer, participants who drink a cup of beer or water have a higher level of happiness, relaxation, family cohesion, and family satisfaction. Lastly, participants who drink a cup of beer or water have a higher level of family cohesion and family satisfaction than those who drink four cups of beer through happiness. Study 1 extends art festivals’ literature by identifying the effect of parents’ attending status and alcohol consumption on happiness, relaxation, family cohesion, and family satisfaction. Study 2 focuses on sports events. This study found spectators who drink a cup of beer feel higher family satisfaction than those who drink four cups of beer. Study 2 contributes to sports events’ literature by identifying the differences in spectators’ alcohol consumption on family cohesion and family satisfaction at sports events. Differences in the results for study 1 (i.e., art festivals) and study 2 (i.e., sports events) suggest important implications. There is a significant difference in parents’ attending status on happiness and relaxation in study 1, but not in study 2. It might be because art festivals provide more opportunities for participants to walk around at the venue and they have to pay more attention to their children, leading to lower happiness and relaxation. However, at sports events spectators generally sit in a particular area that does not require spectators to take care of their children as much. Further, both study 1 and study 2 indicate that affective event experience (i.e., happiness, relaxation) leads to higher family satisfaction and family cohesion. Hence, art festivals and sports events planners could design entertainment activities (e.g., painting workshop, free-throw shooting competition) for parents and children to have more chances to interact/communicate while having fun. There are other possible indicators (e.g., location) that potentially influence participants’ affective event experience (e.g.,happiness, relaxation) and family cohesion/satisfaction. Future research should continue to explore the other possible indicators of event experience in different leisure event contexts.