Distinguishing concrete and formal operational thinking in terms of logical reasoning ability, attitude toward mathematics, and G.P.A. in preservice teachers



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This research was designed for the purpose of determining if there are certain logical reasoning characteristics, affective qualities, or achievement measures in which differences in concrete and formal operational thinking can be described. In particular, a profile consisting of the five subscales of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, two attitudinal dimensions inherent in the Aiken and Dreger Mathematics Attitude Scale, and Grade Point Average was examined for potential of discriminating the various substages of concrete and formal operational thinking. The research would further summarize various attributes of college students in general, and of preservice teachers in particular. In addition, certain implications for research, changes in instructional format, modification of expectations, and the like were expected. Additionally, an examination of one's preference for consistency in a mathematical system was included so that notions of cognitive development could be interpreted in terms of a mathematical concept. [...]