The Role of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) in Disposition of Glucuronide Conjugates

Date

2016-12

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Abstract

[Purpose] The overall objective is to explore and predict the impact of BCRP on disposition of glucuronides and to change the disposition of glucuronides by manipulating transporters. To approach this goal, three specific aims are: 1) To determine clearance by UGTs and clearance by BCRP for a series of compounds and their glucuronide metabolites; 2) To investigate the role of BCRP in disposition of glucuronide conjugates in vivo; 3) To increase the systemic exposure of glucuronides (and therefore the aglycones) by manipulating efflux transporters. [Methods] Human UGT1A9-overexpressing HeLa cells and MRP2-overexpressing MDCKII-UGT1A1 cells were used as in vitro cellular models to study the excretion of glucuronides by BCRP and MRP2, respectively. Pooled intestinal and hepatic S9 fractions were used to determine the intrinsic glucuronidation clearance. For in vivo studies, pharmacokinetic experiments were performed in wild-type (WT) and Bcrp1 (-/-) mice. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (i.e., PBPK) model containing seven organ compartments connected by arterial and venous blood supplies was constructed to predict pharmacokinetic profiles of parent compounds and their glucuronide metabolites. [Results] 1) The clearance by UGTs and the efflux clearance by BCRP were determined for eight compounds (daidzein, chrysin, maackiain, 3,6-DHF, resveratrol, genistein, sorafenib, and MPA) or their glucuronides. More than 4 orders of magnitude difference in glucuronidation clearance existed among these eight compounds. The rank orders of clearance values were almost the same in liver and in intestinal microsomes. Chrysin and maackiain had the highest glucuronidation clearances in mouse S9 fractions. Daidzein glucuronide had the highest clearance by BCRP in human UGT1A9-overexpressing HeLa cells, which was more than 30-fold higher than that of sorafenib glucuronide and maackiain glucuronide. A novel transport-glucuronidation classification system was proposed based on in vitro data. 2a) By using a newly developed and validated LC-MS/MS method, it was found that there was no significant change in systemic exposure of chrysin and its glucuronide, although the Tmax for chrysin glucuronide was significantly shorter (p<0.01) in Bcrp1 deficient mice. 2b) A PBPK model was developed to predict the impact of BCRP on glucuronide disposition for different compounds. For compounds with greater clearance by UGTs and the resulting glucuronides effluxed rapidly and predominantly by BCRP, significant increase in glucuronide AUC in Bcrp deficient mice was predicted and observed (daidzein and genistein). 3) An elevated systemic (i.e., blood) exposure of resveratrol glucuronides was achieved in wild-type and Bcrp1 knockout mice when animals were treated with curcumin, which was an inhibitor of efflux transporters. Curcumin achieved above-stated effects by inhibiting efflux transporters including MRP2 and BCRP, thereby promoting the distribution of resveratrol glucuronides into the systemic circulation (i.e., increased AUC and Cmax). [Conclusion] BCRP plays important role in disposition of glucuronide conjugates. In previous and current study, we observed that the extent of impact from BCRP varied among different compounds. By applying the newly developed transport-glucuronidation classification system and PBPK model, we for the first time demonstrated that the impact of BCRP on disposition of glucuronide can be predicted by knowing if a compound is subjected to fast or slow glucuronidation, with the resulting glucuronides subjected to rapid or slow efflux by BCRP. In addition, we showed that using curcumin as an inhibitor of efflux transporters could result in increased systemic exposure of resveratrol and its glucuronides in vivo, which could be expanded to other co-administered drugs using the similar disposition mechanisms.

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Keywords

Glucuronide, BCRP, Disposition, Transporter

Citation

Portions of this document appear in: Ge, Shufan, Song Gao, Taijun Yin, and Ming Hu. "Determination of pharmacokinetics of chrysin and its conjugates in wild-type FVB and Bcrp1 knockout mice using a validated LC-MS/MS method." Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 63, no. 11 (2015): 2902-2910. And in: Ge, Shufan, Taijun Yin, Beibei Xu, Song Gao, and Ming Hu. "Curcumin affects phase II disposition of resveratrol through inhibiting efflux transporters MRP2 and BCRP." Pharmaceutical research 33, no. 3 (2016): 590-602.