An assessment of cognitive and affective changes in elementary school students participating in a career education counseling program

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1975

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Abstract

Introduction. Career education received an official designation as a priority of the United States Office of Education by Commissioner of Education Sidney P. Marland in 1971. The major emphasis of career education was to enhance the career development of students at all levels. A review of the literature suggests that career education programs have been implemented into the curriculum of schools from kindergarten through adult education. Objectives of these programs are to provide students an opportunity to gain knowledge about the world of work, to gain a broader view of occupational categories, to have hands-on experiences in occupational situations, to understand the importance of work in this society, and to develop a set of attitudes and values which make work possible, important, meaningful, and satisfying. Career education programs have been implemented as a result of federal, state, and local funding. Assessment and evaluation procedures have been the responsibility of the local districts. Purpose. This study was designed to assess the effect of the Corpus Christi Career Education Counseling Program on third and fifth grade elementary school students who participated in the program. This federally funded program had been implemented as an integrated part of the curriculum rather than as a new subject. Two of the objectives of the program were to increase the knowledge of the world of work and the self-concept of the participating students. The first problem of this study was to validate the assessment instruments for each grade level. The second problem was a conditional problem, to measure the effects of the program if the assessment instruments were valid. Procedures. Students in selected elementary schools in the Corpus Christi Independent School District were given the Assessment Inventory and the Self-Concept and Motivation Inventory: SCAMIN in May, 1974. The student responses on the Assessment Inventory were dicotomized into a right-wrong framework. The student responses on the SCAMIN were recorded on a one-to-five Likert-type scale. Methods and Analysis. Data obtained from the use of each instrument was subjected to factor analysis. The resulting correlation matrix was subjected to a varimax procedure followed by orthogonal rotation. The rotated factor matrix for each instrument and each grade level indicated its usability. This method of validation indicated that both instruments measured their purported purposes for the fifth grade elementary school students included in this study but that neither instrument measured its purported purpose for the third grade elementary school student included in this study. Since the scores for the third grade students were not found to be valid, no further analysis was feasible. The scores of the fifth grade students included in this study were found to be usable and those scores were subjected to one-way analysis of variance. One-way analysis of variance procedures were applied to the scores for the students on the Assessment Inventory variable. Although the experimental group had a higher mean score, the F value of 1.39 was not significant at the .05 level of significance. One-way analysis of variance procedures applied to the Motivation variable resulted in an F value of 1.07. Although the experimental group had a higher mean score, the F value was not significant at the .05 level of significance. The Self-Concept variable was subjected to one-way analysis of variance. The mean score for the experimental group was higher but the F value of 1.07 was not significant at the .05 level of significance. An F value of 1.17 was obtained when the SCAMIN scores were subjected to one-way analysis of variance. The mean scores for the experimental group was higher but the F value was not significant at the .05 level of significance. [...]

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