An integration of four models of goal setting



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Goal setting research has demonstrated positive effects of specific and challenging goals on performance (Locke, Shaw, Saari, & Latham, 1981; Tubbs, 1986). Four models that address why goal setting works were integrated and applied to a laboratory study that had three goal groups working for a one hour period. The one hour period was broken into four fifteen minute work cycles and integrated models were proposed for each cycle. The goal manipulation was not successful, though it was concluded that the performance of the subjects represented highly motivated behavior. A path analysis of the models indicated that self-efficacy and intention were important determinants of performance. Goal acceptance was not important for causing personal goals or intentions. Discrepancies between performance and goals minimally affected intentions, but did not affect self-efficacy. This research demonstrated the possibilities for the Integration of different motivation models and introduced a new methodology for goal setting studies.



Goal setting in personnel management