An analysis of student self diagnosis of reading problems using miscue techniques
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of direct instruction in the use of the reading cue systems, i.e., the graphophonic, the syntactic, and the semantic cue systems. This effect of instruction on the individual reader was measured by a change in the factor scores as derived from data obtained from the Reading Miscue Inventory by Goodman & Burke (1972). This study attempted to ascertain if such instruction would assist elementary school readers to modify appropriately their reading strategies through self diagnostic techniques. The study primarily focused on the difference in factor patterns obtained as a result of the instructional program. Research hypotheses also considered different scores on variables used to measure graphophonic, syntactic, and semantic cue usage. Pretestposttest control group design was used to compare the performance of experimental and control groups. Two heterogenously grouped fifth grade classes from a southeast Texas surburban school district were used for the experimental and control groups. A total of 44 subjects were used. Each student was pretested by reading orally a 530 word selection measured at 7th grade readability on the Fry Readability Graph. Each selection was recorded on tape for later checking and analysis. The miscues for each subject were then analyzed using the Reading Miscue Inventory. Following the pretest, the experimental group was exposed to a series of lessons, 4 times a week for 5 weeks. The duration of the lessons was 30 - 35 minutes. The purpose of the instruction was to: 1. Acquaint the students with the three cue systems, 2. Give practice to the student in recognizing his/ her own problem areas in the reading material, and 3. Allow the student to practice classifying his/her own reading problem areas according to the three cue systems. The instructional strategies used to accomplish the instructional objectives were: 1. Cloze selections with substitutions already present; 2. Cloze selections to be filled in by the student; 3. Training tapes allowing practice in identifying oral alterations in text; and 4. Application in silent reading through reader selection of miscues. The data were analyzed using factor analysis which used the subprogram FACTOR, contained in SPSS, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. One way analysis of variance was used to test for significant differences in the three cue systems. The following conclusions were drawn: 1. Analysis of the pretest data indicated the presence of five factors. The posttest control group exhibited four factors; the experimental group exhibited three factors, which indicated a significant change in factor scores. 2. The shift in number and structure of factors had to be controlled before testing for significant differences in cue system usage. When this shift was controlled, there was no significant difference in graphophonic, syntactic, or semantic cue usage between the experimental and control groups. 3. The between trial changes (pre- and posttest) showed a change at the .05 level of significance for three out of five factors. This indicated a similar change in factor reduction occurred for both groups. However, the experimental group had moved more rapidly in this direction. 4. The experimental group had reduced the number of factors to three. Each one of these factors related directly to one of the cue systems. This indicated the ability of the experimental group to use the cue systems in a more efficient manner. The factor analysis technique allowed a unique perspective on the miscue process by indicating patterns of variables influencing the reading process. The results also indicated that linguistic maturation or development, with respect to cue system usage, was hastened by direct teaching. The study results exhibited the existence of the cue systems, which indicated the RMI does measure what it purports to measure.