The relationship between reading achievement, economic deprivation, and pupil cost in Texas title I projects during fiscal year 1980



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



The objective of this study was to explore the return on investment in Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I compensatory education projects devoted to reading achievement in Texas during the 1979-80 school year. To this end a comparison was made between Normal Curve Equivalent gains and: (1) economic deprivation as defined by percent of pupils from low-income families residing in local school districts, (2) pupil costs as defined by average per-pupil expenditures, and (3) readingscore gains in grades two and six. Data for the 1979-80 school year were obtained from school district funding application records on file with the Division of Compensatory Education of the Texas Education Agency (TEA), and from evaluation reports of pupil reading achievement on file with the TEA Division of Program Evaluation. Findings in this study led to the conclusion that federal funds have had a selective impact upon reading gains among the pupils in the school districts studied. The impact has been greater in school districts with low, rather than high, percentages of economic deprivation and among grade two, as opposed to grade six, pupils. [...]



Reading (Elementary), Compensatory education--Texas, Education--Texas--Costs