The effect of an individualized in-service program on teacher questioning and student verbal participation



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Purposes of the Study. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the extent to which kindergarten and first-grade teachers employed higher level cognitive operations prior to, during, and after individual instruction; (2) to determine the degree of teacher-pupil verbal interaction prior to, during, and after individual instruction; and (3) to determine the extent to which selected materials and learning activities helped the kindergarten and first-grade teachers employ higher level cognitive operations and elicit more student verbal participation. Sources of Data and Procedures. An analysis was made of the oral discourse of the Greater Houston area Lutheran kindergarten and first-grade religion classes using Sanders' taxonomy of questions prior to, during, and after an individualized in-service program. The study consisted of thirty-four teachers teaching 694 pupils who were in twenty different Lutheran schools. The teachers were divided into two groups with seventeen in the experimental group and seventeen in the control group. The teachers recorded on tape the oral discourse of their religion lessons prior to, during, and after the in-service program. After the lessons were analyzed, the teachers were given suggestions for improving the lessons. All teachers in both groups were engaged in the same type of in-service program. Each received written individual suggestions; however, the experimental teachers received two additional hours of individual oral instruction. This individualized in-service program was called the MODIPAK Instructional Program.



Education, Primary, Cognition