A study of the effects of presenting the process of measuring to pre-service elementary school science teachers by abstract and applied modes of instruction



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Purpose of the Study. This study investigated the effects of presenting the process of measuring to pre-service elementary school science teachers by the abstract and applied modes of instruction. The primary concern of the study was to compare the gains made by students receiving the abstract mode of instruction with those receiving the applied mode. A secondary purpose of the investigation was to compare student gains according to area of interest. Procedures. The one hundred two students enrolled in elementary science education methods classes in the fall semester of 1970 at Murray State University in Murray, Kentucky, constituted the sample for the investigation. Half of the participants were classified as juniors, and the other students were seniors. For this investigation all participants were grouped further according to the areas of interest indicated by those involved. These groupings were science, language arts, and social studies. Materials of the process of measuring from the elementary science program, Science--A Basic Approach, were used as the basic testing and teaching elements by permission of the Xerox Corporation. Testing materials, given as a performance test, were all of the individual competency measures on the process of measuring from Science--A Process Approach. Pre-Tests were administered at the beginning of the investigation. An abstract mode of instruction was used on half of the subjects and an applied mode on the other half. Following the teaching period, Post-Tests were given to determine competency gains. An analysis of variance was done using the Completely Randomized Factorial Design, which gave a simultaneous evaluation of three main effects. The three main effects of method, classification, and interest that were used in this study had twelve treatment combinations. Four interactions were evaluated from the three-treatment design. The categories of the interest level were examined by the Tukey test of Honestly Significant Difference. [...]



Elementary school teachers--Training of, Science teachers--Training of