A comparative study of aggessive reactions to frustration as shown by children of two different religious groups near Houston, Texas



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Statement of the Problem: The purpose of this study was to mine a comparison between a sample of Quaker children and non-Quaker children in their reactions to frustrating situations. Differences have been shown to exist from group to group in cultural comparisons, and the Quakers, due to teir traditional non-aggressive discipline seemed likely subjects to add valuable information in the religious area of this problem. Experimental Procedure: Two instruments were used to measure aggression: the children's form of Rosenzweig's Picture-Frustration Study, and a simple, unstructured Draw-A-Person record. Classroom situations were the settings for the gathering of the data. Subjects: Seventy nine children gave the responses used in this study; thirty five of these Quakers, and forty four were non-Quaker Protestants. The thirty eight boys were evenly divided as to religious background, but the forty one girls were composed twenty five non-Quakers and sixteen Quakers. The children ranged in age from eight to sixteen Quakers. The Children ranged in age from eight to sixteen, with all but four between eight and fifteen years. The mean age was 11.7 years. All were students in the public school of a community of some six hundred population. Findings: All results obtained from the use of the Picture-Frustration Study were given Rosenzweig's classifications as to direction of aggression and type of reaction, and his group-conformity-rating score. The Draw-A-Person results were in terms of size, pressure, speed of drawing, and expression of the total drawing. Obtained differences were further expressed in the student's "t" ratio. Briefly, the results were: Boys. The non-Quaker boys registered more intropunitiveness, while the Quaker boys exceeded in ego-defensive type of reaction. Girls. No difference approached significance. Total Boys and Total Girls. The boys recorded more extrapunitiveness, while the girls responded in a more intropunitive manner. Total Quakers and Total non-Quakers. The ego-defensive type of reaction was characteristic of the Quakers, and the non-Quakers expressed need persistence. In the Draw-A-Person records, no "t" ratio approached the significant level. Two tendencies, however, were consistent: Quakers expressed more aggression in speed of drawing, and the non-Quakers consonantly made larger drawings of the human figure. There were no correlations between the differece obtained from the two instruments. Conclusions. Differences were found by each of the instruments used, but no marked dissimilarities were revealed. The strongest ones were the ego-defensive inclination of the Quakers and the need-persstent consistency of the non-Quakers. Whether the differences that were found can be safely attributed to religious training is difficult to say; however, differences in religious training is the greatest mark of distinction in the lives of the children of these two groups.



Aggressiveness, Quaker children