The effects of advance organizers and concrete manipulatives on student time on task

Date

1988

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in time on task between groups of students whose teachers were and were not using (1) advance organizers and (2) concrete manipulatives during mathematics instruction. The following null hypotheses were tested: Hypothesis I. There is no significant difference in time on task between the group in which the teacher used an advance organizer and the group in which the teacher did not use an advance organizer. Hypothesis II. There is no significant difference in time on task between the group using concrete manipulatives and the group not using concrete manipulatives. Hypothesis III. There is no significant difference in time on task between groups using and not using concrete manipulatives and groups with and without an advance organizer. The experimental design of this study was a two-factor analysis of variance. Data were analyzed by using an F-test. The independent variables of the study were advance organizers and concrete manipulatives. The dependent variable in the study was student time on task. Six classes, grades three through five, participated in this study. The sample included one hundred eighty regular mathematics students. Each student was observed four times under the following conditions: Treatment A consisted of a lesson using an advance organizer and concrete manipulatives. Treatment B consisted of a lesson with no advance organizer and the use of concrete manipulatives. Treatment C consisted of a lesson with an advance organizer and no concrete manipulatives. Treatment D consisted of a lesson with no advance organizer and no concrete manipulatives. Observations were initiated with the introduction to the mathematics lesson and examined the first thirty minutes of class. Every two minutes, a trained observer coded student on task behavior using a Classroom Observation Schedule. Data were collected during the spring semester. The first null hypothesis was tested using the main variable, A, advance organizer. The second null hypothesis was tested using the main variable, M, concrete manipulatives. The third null hypothesis was tested using the interaction effect A X M. The null hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of significance. In conclusion, the data did not indicate that the use of an advance organizer had a significant effect on student time on task. The data also did not support the hypothesis that concrete manipulatives had a significant effect on student time on task. The data regarding the interaction effect of advance organizers and concrete manipulatives on student time on task did not indicate a significant interaction between the two independent variables.

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Keywords

Mathematics--Study and teaching (Elementary), Mathematics--Study and teaching (Elementary)--Audio-visual aids

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