The effects of creativity and intelligence on information seeking strategies used in a problem solving task by sixth grade boys

Date

1966

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Abstract

In the present study the effects of intelligence and creativity on information seeking strategies used by 48 subjects in solving the Twenty Questions games were investigated. Three general hypotheses were tested: (1) Choice of strategy is associated with intelligence; there is a significant difference between the effects of high intelligence and low intelligence. (2) Choice of strategy is associated with creativity; there is a significant difference between the effects of high creativity and low creativity in the selection and use of information seeking strategies. (3) Intelligence and creativity act independently in the selection and use of strategies. Intelligence was measured by the Otis Quick-Scoring Mental Ability Test, and creativity was measured by the Minnesota Tests of Creative Thinking. An analysis of the strategies used by the subjects in solving the Twenty Questions games produced an idealized dichotomy: (1) constraint seeking and (2) hypothesis scanning. The subjects select strategies ranging from the exclusive use of hypothesis scanning to the exclusive use of constraint seeking. The subjects were 48 male sixth grade pupils with at least dull normal intelligence; they were members of the Caucasian race, whose ages ranged from 11 to 13 years. The subjects were divided into the following four groups, each containing 12 boys: (1) high intelligence and high creativity, (2) high intelligence and low creativity, (3) low intelligence and high creativity, and (4) low intelligence and low creativity. Each subject was administered the Twenty Questions games and his performance was scored on 15 strategy variables. The data were then statistically analyzed by an analysis of variance, a powered vector method of factor analysis, and a discriminant analysis. As a result of the analysis of the data, the hypothesis that choice of strategy is associated with intelligence was accepted. The hypothesis that choice of strategy is associated with creativity was also accepted. The hypothesis that intelligence and creativity act independently in strategy selection was accepted only in terms of the meaningfulness of the differences reflected in the composition of two of the five factors derived. It was further found that constraint seeking is related to high intelligence and high creativity, whereas low intelligence and low creativity are associated with hypothesis scanning. In addition, subjects with high intelligence and with high creativity were found to be more successful in their approach in terms of the greater number of problems solved and in higher efficiency in the use of information.

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Keywords

Creative ability in children., Intellect., Problem solving in children.

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