Theory and applications of selected mass spectrometric techniques



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This research provides a better understanding of the factors influencing analyses. Selected methods involving mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, and the combination of the two are developed and applied in these studies. Specifically, principles of quadrupole, monopole, magnetic deflection, thermal vapor effusion, differential thermal analysis, probe spark source, direct nuclide imaging, stable isotopic, and gas chromatographic techniques with mass spectrometry are each examined and applied to exemplary biochemical problems. The search, identification and measurement of organogenic elements and compounds in mineral, meteoritic, and lunar samples is described. The presence of pristane, phytane, farnesane, the binodal distribution of paraffins, and a carbon isotopic ratio were used to demonstrate the biogenicity of a hydrothermal inclusion, chemical distribution and analysis of the Pueblito de Allende Chondrite, Canyon Diablo Meteorite and returned lunar material were determined. The quantity and type of carbon was shown to be segregated, probably graphitic, in the Pueblito and ubiquitous, appearing as CO and CO2, in the lunar material. Many other elements were also measured. Instrumentation developments are presented on sector and hyperbolic field mass spectrometers connected to gas chromatographs for state-of-the-art laboratory or space-flight applications. A complete GCMS survey covers applications, operating techniques, basic principles and includes the design of a new data acquisition system.