Application of the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer in the analysis of: I. the Apollo 16 and 17 lunar samples II. volatile compounds in urine and other body fluids of tumor-bearing mice



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The Apollo 16 lunar samples were subjected to stepped pyrolyses up to 1000[degrees]C and the organogenic compounds CO, CO[lowered 2], CH[lowered 4], H[lowered 2]O and C[lowered 1] - C[lowered 3] hydrocarbons released were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aliquots of the same samples were also etched with DCl and the amounts of deuterated to nondeuterated hydrocarbons determined. Total volatiles released from the fines are (in ppm) N[lowered 2] (240-420), CO (300-1300), CO[lowered 2] (32-1258), CH[lowered 4] (.7 - 9.7), H[lowered 2]O (192-2200) and total C (155-915). The total volatiles released from the rocks are (in ppm) (19-177), CO (5-57), CO[lowered 2] (32-302), H[lowered 2]O (31-330) and total C (16-35). N[lowered 2], CO and H[lowered 2]O released upon pyrolysis varied for different samples indicating more than one source for these samples. Most of the water was released at temperatures below 500[degrees]C indicating terrestrial atmospheric contamination. Some of the fines released water within the temperature range 550 -> 800 introducing the possibility of an indigenous lunar source. This result was also confirmed by stepped pyrolysis of Apollo 17 lunar samples for the analysis of water content only. The sieved fractions of Apollo 16 sample #65901,17 showed no size correlation for the compounds above with the exception of water which increases with decreasing particle size (150-790 ppm). The acid treatment of the Apollo 17 samples resulted in the decrease of deuterated to nondeuterated ratios progressing from C[lowered 1] to C[lowered 3] indicating that hydrolysis of reactive carbon species produces primarily methane. The hydrocarbons released by acid treatment of rocks were considerably less than by volatilization possibly due to the trapping of hydrocarbons in the crystalline matrix or microvesicles and only released by pyrolysis. PART II A preliminary study in the endeavor to, eventually, detect cancer at a reasonably early stage has been attempted. The volatile metabolites in urine, blood plasma and abdominal fluid of normal mice and mice bearing the Ehrlich Ascites tumor were collected using the headspace sampling technique and analysed using both the GLC-FID (Varian 1400) and GLC-MS (LKB 9000) systems. The urinary compounds common in both mouse and human urine samples are the ketones, C[lowered 3]-C[lowered 7] hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, dimethyl disulfide, alkyl substituted furans and pyrroles, and the aldehydes. The differences upon comparison between normal and abnormal urine were examined with caution, eliminating any inconsistent changes. A terpene, piperitenone, has been identified in the urine of abnormal mice only, and has served as an index for the presence of Ehrlich Ascites tumor cells in mice. (Identification is tentative.) Several differences in the GLC-FID profiles of blood plasma and abdominal fluid collected from normal and tumor bearing mice were observed. GLC-MS analyses revealed the presence of acetone, benzene, and toluene in both plasma and abdominal fluid, toluene being present in much higher concentration in the ascitic fluid than in the saline wash of the abdominal cavity of normal mice. Two additional compounds were detected in the ascitic fluid and were identified as 2-pentanone and chloroform.