An experimental study of scheduling and duration of "Tier 2" first-grade reading intervention


This study compared the effects on reading outcomes of delivering supplemental, small-group intervention to first-grade students at risk for reading difficulties randomly assigned to one of three different treatment schedules: extended (4 sessions per week, 16 weeks; n = 66), concentrated (4 sessions per week, 8 weeks; n = 64), or distributed (2 sessions per week, 16 weeks; n = 62) schedules. All at-risk readers, identified through screening followed by 8 weeks of oral reading fluency (ORF) progress monitoring, received the same Tier 2 reading intervention in groups of 2 to 4 beginning in January of Grade 1. Group means were higher in word reading and ORF at the final time point relative to pretest; however, the groups did not differ significantly on any reading outcome or on rates of adequate intervention response. Of potential covariates, site, age, free lunch status, program coverage rate, and tutor were significantly related to student outcomes; however, the addition of these variables in multivariate models did not substantially change results. Rates of adequate intervention response were lower than have been reported for some first-grade interventions of longer duration.



Reading intervention, First grade, Duration, Massed and distributed practice


Copyright 2011 Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness. This is a post-print version of a published paper that is available at: Recommended citation: Denton, Carolyn A., Paul T. Cirino, Amy E. Barth, Melissa Romain, Sharon Vaughn, Jade Wexler, David J. Francis, and Jack M. Fletcher. “An Experimental Study of Scheduling and Duration of “Tier 2” First-Grade Reading Intervention.” Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness 4, no. 3 (2011): 208-230. doi: 10.1080/19345747.2010.530127. This item has been deposited in accordance with publisher copyright and licensing terms and with the author’s permission.