An electrophoretic analysis of the multiple hemoglobins of the sand trout, Cyanoscion arenarius



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The sand trout, Cyanoscion arenarius, exhibits five electrophoretic hemoglobin types in each of 96 individuals studied. Neither maturation nor population heterogeneity was observed. This electrophoretic pattern has a peculiar concentration distribution that is suggestive of a random type of hybridization between a faster and a slower electrophoretic species. Sedimentation data indicates no major differences from higher vertebrate hemoglobins. Chromatographic separation of three of the five components was achieved and electrophoretic analysis of the subunit structure was analyzed in 6.25 M urea gel electrophoresis at pH 3.2. This analysis of the normally occurring hemoglobin mixture shows at least four subunits that are present in equal concentrations, while each of the chromatographic fractions shows a varying concentration of each of these polypeptide subunits as two alpha-type and two beta-type subunits that combine at random to form nine hemoglobin types. These are exemplified as five electrophoretically distinguishable HbCO bands with an apparent concentration distribution as observed. Preliminary experiments indicate that the polypeptide chains might be separated by chromatography on CM-cellulose in 8M urea-mercaptoethanal-phosphate buffer. The results presented show evidence of gene duplication within the RBC's of the sand trout; whether this has occurred through the mechanism of entire genome duplication or due to tandemization of these two gene loci remains yet to be investigated.