A Hedonic and Eudaimonic Model of Customer Well-being through Integrated Resort Experiences
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A common assumption holds that tourism generally contributes to customers’ well-being by offering them opportunities to satisfy their needs through escape aids, problem solvers, energy, new lifeblood, and happiness. However, the mechanism behind the effects of travel activities remains unknown. This study discusses how integrated resort experiences lead customer well-being based on the positive activity model, self-determination theory, and well-being framework. Study 1 aims to explore the underlying structures of integrated resort customers’ needs satisfaction to provide a holistic view by developing multi-item scale. The study proposes a 9-item scale capturing three distinct dimensions as autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs satisfaction using a mixed method including qualitative (i.e., literature review and content analysis of online reviews) and quantitative study (i.e., onsite and online survey). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test construct validity. Predictive modeling indicated that autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs satisfaction influence both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Study 2 examines the hypothesis that integrated resort brand experiences (IRBE) influence customer well-being through the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs based on positive-activity model and self-determination theory. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the collected data and test the relevant hypotheses. Partial least squares path modeling tests the hypotheses using a sample of 535 integrated resort customers. The results reveal that four dimensions of IRBE (sensory, affective, behavioral, and intellectual) have differing effects on needs satisfaction dimensions (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). Specifically, affective and intellectual IRBE is found to impact all needs satisfaction positively while relative impacts of sensory and behavioral IRBE on needs satisfaction was found. Further, the results show that autonomy and relatedness needs positively influence both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. This study clearly shows the relationship among integrated resort experience, needs satisfaction, and customer well-being. Also, the differences across the customers’ situational variable (e.g., purpose of visit) are also examined. The findings of this study indicate that sensory, affective, behavioral, and intellectual tourism experiences drive customers’ satisfaction with psychological needs. Sensory, emotional, physical, and intellectual experience can be enhanced by marketing activities, and it makes a difference with other competitors. Also, integrated resort managers with strategic tools that drive customer well-being through travel experiences. For instance, by focusing on autonomy needs, practitioners can design better-informed programs such as experiential content to help strengthen the customers’ self-motivated behavior. Also, the findings of this study show that customers satisfaction with relatedness needs has both a direct effect on both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Thus, service providers, must, therefore seek to drive connection of existing and potential customers. The organizations should aim to strengthen connections between customers and integrated resort brands regarding meeting the customers’ values by designing effective communications about the brands to customers.