Computation of Breast Ptosis from 3D Scans of Torso
Li, Danni 1988-
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Ptosis is an important morphological parameter for characterizing breast aesthetics and is frequently used for assessing the outcome of breast surgery. It refers to the extent to which the nipple is lower than the terminus of the inframammary fold (the contour along which the inferior part of the breast attaches to the chest wall). Current clinical assessment of ptosis involves qualitative visualization by observers which is subject to inter- and intra-observer variability. Alternatively, ptosis can be measured anthropometrically from the patient or from clinical photographs, but these methods are error prone. As stereophotography is now finding its niche in clinical breast surgery, in this study we investigated and evaluated the utility of three-dimensional (3D) features such as surface curvature, coronal projection and surface normal for the assessment of breast ptosis using 3D scans of the torso. Experimental results suggest that 3D features are successful for objectively categorizing breast ptosis with high accuracy and precision.