Inhibition of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystallization Using Organic Growth Modifiers
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Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), the most common component in human kidney stone diseases, was investigated using various structural derivatives of citrate, a known inhibitor of COM crystallization. Bulk crystallization studies revealed the specific binding of modifiers to COM crystal surfaces. Kinetic studies were performed to quantify both the efficacy and potency of growth inhibitors. These studies demonstrated that increased number of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups play a crucial role in interacting with specific COM crystal surface. Designing effective inhibitors require a fundamental understanding of modifier-crystal interactions at the molecular level. Consequently, we have used in situ AFM to observe the COM surface growth in the absence and in the presence of a growth inhibitor. Results obtained in this study may serve as a general platform to investigate the molecular recognition between modifiers and COM crystal surfaces as a step towards designing preventative drugs for kidney stone disease.